Table of Contents
- 兩岸華語初級階段教材之漢字用字量及互通性初探 信世昌、周昭廷
Why Yes in Business Chinese Can Become No? by Shih-Chang Hsin, Chao-Ting Chou
Many L2 learners of Chinese are found to learn Chinese in both Taiwan and China. An obvious question arises in this context is the cross-strait interchangeability of vocabularies introduced in different textbooks. For instance, one of the difficulties lies in the traditional-simplified distinction of Chinese characters. More importantly, the cross-strait mismatch of the vocabulary quantity in different textbooks is another issue that is likely to cause a transitional challenge for these learners to go from one place to another through their learning process. The major research question of this paper is the quantity and the cross-strait interchangeability of the vocabularies in the textbooks used for the first two semesters (=one year) in beginner’s Chinese courses in both Taiwan and China. The representative textbooks used for beginners in Taiwan are Book I, Book IIA, and Book IIB of Far East Everyday Chinese. On the other hand, the counterparts in China are Book I and Book II of Practical Chinese Reader, New Edition. We carried out statistical analysis of the texts in these two textbooks, focusing on the frequency and the times of occurrences of the vocabularies. The results of the statistical analyses show significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the sets of characters introduced in these textbooks in Taiwan and Mainland China. Students who start out to study Chinese in Taiwan would face 24% unknown characters introduced in Practical Chinese Reader, New Edition when they transfer to Mainland China at the same level. By contrast, those who start out in Mainland China would find unfamiliar 49% of the characters in Far East Everyday Chinese when transferring to Taiwan. In addition, the social-linguistic disparity between Taiwan and Mainland China influences the selection of characters/vocabularies in textbooks. Thus, further research is needed to bridge the cross-strait qualitative/quantitative gap between the characters/vocabularies introduced in textbooks for beginner’s level.
- 為什麼商務華語中的Yes可能是No？ 陳麗宇、鄭錦全
Malaysian Chinese Independent High School Students’ Cognitive Understanding of Take “Na” Action Verbs in Chinese: Examples from “V + N” Structures by Li-Yu Chen, Chin-Chuan Cheng
Foreign business professionals working in Chinese-speaking regions often asked why in business English-Chinese conversations or formal negotiations, ＂yes＂ could turn into ＂no＂ right in the meeting or afterwards. Such a seemingly cheating language behavior in fact may have various explanations. This study explains in terms of dialog structure that the Chinese word ＂shi＂ does not correspond completely to English ＂yes＂. Chinese ＂shi＂ in answering English questions expresses the speaker’s agreement to what is said in the question and not to the positive or negative statement of the question sentence. ＂Shi＂ can also be used to indicate ＂I am listening, please go on＂ while undecided, hesitation, or concession. It is also used on some occasions as a response to save the face of the interlocutor and does not mean to agree with the person addressed. Moreover, in the past decade or so in Taiwan people used ＂shi＂ and ＂dui＂ as a non-sensical word in their conversation. They could be heard as speakers dotted the discourse with these words to fill the gap in the speech stream. This study discusses these pragmatic problems in language use. Some suggestions are raised for vocabulary teaching in business Chinese.
- 華語否則類短語的篇章與人際功能探究 王萸芳、蔡碧華、許訓銘、胡凱閔
A Corpus-based Study of the Textual and Interpersonal Functions of Mandarin Chinese (Yao)Buran, Yaobu, and Fouze by Yu-Fang Wang, Pi-Hua Tsai, Hsun-Ming Hsu, Kai-Ming Hu
華語「不然」和「否則」在古代漢語都有「不是如此，不是這樣」的意思，後來發展出「如果不是這樣」的意思，表示前面敍述了一種情況，反過來的另一種情況就不是這樣了。「不然」也有一些變體，如「要不」、「要不然」和「再不然」。本研究旨在探究「不然」、「要不然」和「要不」以及「否則」出現於日常會話及電視政論兩種不同的口語語體的特色。研究採用Halliday（1994）語言的三個元功能為分析架構，即“表義／概念功能”，“人際功能”和“語篇功能”。研究發現，「不然」及其變體（特別是「要不然」）出現在日常會話比電視政論多，然「否則」卻較多出現於電視政論。此外，本研究也顯示：從「不然」、「要不然」和「要不」在篇章與人際層面的功能來看，因其常出現在條件因果句或假設句，其意義具有主觀性，甚至交互主觀性（Traugott and Dasher 2002），故較常出現於不正式的口語會話中。「不然」已從「不是如此」的意義漸漸延伸至有高度主觀性，如表推論，與交互主觀性，如表建議的功能。另外，「（要）不然」與「要不」在功能上雖有許多相似處，但此二詞在語法化的後半部階段有不同的發展，故二者亦有不同處。為了掌握這不同領域中的語義語用現象，我們借助Fauconnier and Turner（2002）所提出的融合理論（Blending Theory）來解釋「不然」與「否則」所銜接的句子其背後的心理空間現象，進而說明其語法化現象的過程，並以前人的研究及本研究結果為基礎，考察口語中的「（要）不然」、「要不」和「否則」中語法化的程度。研究發現，與「不然」、「要不然」和「要不」相較，「否則」主觀性強，交互主觀性卻不如它們強。
This study discusses the textual and pragmatic (interpersonal) functions of the near-synonyms (yao) buran, yaobu and fouze, which parallel to English ‘otherwise’, or ‘or’, connecting two clauses to express ‘or else; if not, then’. In particular, drawing on Halliday’s (1994) three-level model, viz. ideational (propositional), textual and interpersonal functions, the study looks into their uses in two different text types: daily casual conversations and TV political panel discussions. The data show that (yao) buran and yaobu tend to occur in casual conversations, while fouze, in political panel discussions. In addition, yaobu is used differently from buran in some ways, though both of them might come from yaoburan, which is composed of yao and buran. As a whole, this study suggests that (yao) buran and fouze, which originally had a referential meaning ‘not so’, are subjective in the sense that they involve the speaker’s assessment and evaluation of a proposition. However, the meanings of (yao) buran and yaobu are more subjective than that of fouze and they are even more intersubjective, which involves the speaker’s attention to the addressee as a participant in the speech event (Traugott and Dasher 2002). Finally, we account for the differences between fouze and buran by using Fauconnier and Turner’s Mental Space Blending Theory (2002).
- 漢語教學中數目詞的探究 江惜美
Chinese Numerals in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language by Hsi-Mei Chiang
This paper aims to explore the application of the variation of numerals in Chinese and how these different forms of numerical words should be taught in Chinese as a second language. Chinese characters have evolved and developed over time from their earliest known pictographic forms, and to the versions used today. It holds true for Chinese characters for the numbers 1 to 10. More specifically, it is found that while teaching Chinese numbers corresponding to one to ten, teachers need to verify how ＂èr二 and liăng兩＂, ＂yī一 and yī壹＂, and ＂wàn万 and wàn萬＂ are used in context to help learners use them appropriately. In this paper, the numeral Chinese characters in terms of its forms and pronunciations followed by their frequencies of occurrences in teaching. Finally, methods are suggested for teachers while teaching these various written forms of Chinese numbers. It is hoped that thought the analyzing of the different characters, pronunciations, and meanings of Chinese numbers, teachers can have a better understanding regarding Chinese numeral characters. More importantly, many Chinese idioms are closely related to numbers which often connote special cultural meanings. This article will illustrate some of these number idioms as examples so that teachers will explain not only the meaning of words literally, but also the connotation of these numeral characters in idioms. Today, Chinese numeral characters, often in combination with measure words, carry special meaning and are used widely in various disciplines. There is a need for Chinese educators and researchers to explore further.
- 法律華語教學之定位、定性和定向分析 陳寅清
Teaching Legal Chinese for Second Language Learners: Analysis of Orientation, Quality and Direction by Yin-Ching Chen
「法律華語」為「專業華語」的分支學科之一，性質屬於「特定目的之外語教學」（Languages for Specific Purposes），兼跨二語教學與法律專業之雙重領域，在學術研究與教學應用上皆尚有極大的發展空間。本文先就英美針對國際學生設計的法律英語課程及相關研究進行考察，再以國際專業外語教學的理論為基礎，針對海峽兩岸出版的法律華語教科書，以及商務華語教科書中涉及法律概念、法律實務，與法律文化的教材進行分析，以期呈顯法律華語教學的學科性質、定位和特徵，進而提供未來專業法律華語的教學及研究參考。
Legal Chinese is one of the courses of Chinese for Specific Purposes, which involves the two disciplines of teaching Chinese as a second language and legal education. Compared to legal English studies, the field of teaching legal Chinese still has much more to be explored. This paper first looks into relevant studies and theories of teaching legal English for international students; then based on the theories of teaching foreign language for specific purposes, the paper discusses the course materials of legal Chinese, including legal Chinese textbooks, as well as chapters involves legal knowledge in business Chinese textbooks. By clarifying the nature and characteristics of the emerging field of legal Chinese teaching, this pilot study hopes to provide useful references for future research and teaching of legal Chinese for second language learners.
- Self-repair Practices in a Chinese as a Second Language Classroom by Xiao-Fei Tang
The organization of repair plays the most significant role in language instruction. Insight into repair, informed by Conversation Analysis (CA), contributes to the development of second-language acquisition (SLA) and pedagogy. While a number of Chinese linguists have worked on the issue of repair with the Beijing and Taiwan Mandarin Chinese conversation data (e.g., Chui 1996; Tao 1995; Yang 2009), attention is rarely focused on Chinese as a second language (CSL) learners’ self-repair and the repair devices applied in Chinese institutional talk. Also, the initiation and the outcome of each repair were not properly discussed, as these studies only analyzed the classifications of detailed repair methods. Therefore, this study aims to look into the details of L2 learners’ self-repair devices in Mandarin Chinese classrooms, in order to inspire CSL teachers to reach out to L2 learners more effectively and successfully in an authentic teaching context. To do this, I investigated the two types of self-repair (i.e., self-initiated self-repair and other-initiated self-repair) and identified the appropriate repair practices in Chinese conversation. The analysis was based on 147-minutes of audio involving institutional conversation between four teachers and two CSL classes, drawn from a corpus recorded at Wuhan University, China. The results indicated two types of self-repair while the absence of other-initiation methods were noted in the data. Instead, the repetition of the original question was utilized by CSL teachers in order to emphasize and indirectly target the trouble source of the students’ turns. Therefore, I concluded that although the CA-informed repair mechanism is highly applicable to Chinese conversations, some particular features of self-repair in the CSL classroom cannot be ignored.