分類:《臺灣華語教學研究》TJCSL

《臺灣華語教學研究》2019年第1期(總第18期)徵稿主題:內容語言整合學習

《臺灣華語教學研究》期刊2019年第1期徵稿

特刊徵稿主題:內容語言整合學習

Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL

特約主編:陳振宇

總編輯:鄭錦全

~本期繼續歡迎一般領域論文投稿,並新增特定主題徵稿~

說明

近幾年來在人類認知與語言發展與學習的研究中,心理學的社會文化理論逐漸抬頭。同時,以英語主導的二語教學也從早期著重語言形式的統一形態逐漸轉變成當代重視語言內容的多元樣態,其中「內容導向教學」(Content-Based Instruction, CBI,暫譯為「師必愛」)以及異名同類的「內容語言整合學習」(Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL,暫譯為「課立優」)最能反映這樣的發展趨勢,相關的課程與研究相當活躍而且豐富。

最近,內容導向或內容語言整合學習的英語教學在香港、臺灣開始受到重視,但是這方面的華語教學卻仍少有學者探究,這種情形在兩岸三地、乃至海外地區也是如此。臺灣僅見於2009年臺灣師範大學的一篇碩士論文,以及近幾年臺灣師範大學與美國明德大學蒙特雷國際研究院、北科羅拉多大學及澳洲墨爾本大學合作嘗試推廣的教學設計與師培課程。

本刊2019年6月出版的特刊將以內容導向教學或內容語言整合學習為主題,歡迎國內外華語教學的學者與教師投稿,共同探討此教學理念的理論基礎與教學實踐,特別是針對不同年齡、不同語言程度、不同專業背景、不同教育階段、不同文化經驗、異質班級等等因素所做的課程設計、教學設計、教材編寫、學習評量等,在教學實踐上可能的實施模式、創新做法、可能遭遇的困難、以及因應與解決的方式提出論述。本特刊希冀能以此主題帶動華語教學實踐性的研究,探索具生態元素與社會意義的創新教學模式。來稿中、英文皆可。

投稿須知:

投稿截止:本期特刊論文自即日起至2019年2月28日前投稿,先到先審。

投稿信箱:tjcsl@ntnu.edu.tw 來信請註明「投稿《臺灣華語教學研究》」。

  1. 本刊為雙向匿名審稿的學術期刊,中英文稿件均接受。稿件須未曾投稿至其他刊物或在其他地方出版。
  2. 為配合匿名審稿,論文內文不得出現任何可辨識作者的文字,作者資料請另附(請參附件檔案),包含:論文中、英文標題,作者全名(中、英文),任職單位及聯絡方式。
  3. 投稿文章電子檔應為MS WORD,編碼為Big-5、Unicode 或 GB 須全文一致。
  4. 文長不超過30頁(A4)或兩萬字,須附中英文摘要(約四分之一頁至半頁),中英文關鍵詞不超過六個。

詳細投稿須知及格式請參考台灣華語文教學學會網頁 http://www.atcsl.org/或本刊網頁http://www.atcsl.org/blog/category/publish/tjcsl/

 

《臺灣華語教學研究》編輯部

2018年12月03日

臺灣華語教學研究2019年第一期特刊徵稿

《臺灣華語教學研究》2018年第2期(總第17期)徵稿主題:語料庫與華語教學

《臺灣華語教學研究》2018年第2期(總第17期)徵稿主題:語料庫與華語教學

特刊徵稿主題:語料庫與華語教學
(Corpora and Teaching Chinese as a Second Language)
特約主編:陶紅印
總編輯: 鄭錦全

說明:
隨著電子科技的發達,數字化的語料庫作為新興的研究工具已經為語言學和應用語言學的各個領域帶來新的視點和資源。縱觀目前學界研究現狀,華語語料庫的建置已經初有成效,各類大小規模的語料庫不斷出現,研究成果也在不斷創新。然而在華語教學界,有系統地討論語料庫在語言教學方面的應用,尤其是課堂中應用的案例尚不多見。有鑑於此,本刊特別設立專刊,報導語料庫在華語教學研究和實踐中的最新研究成果。

徵稿範圍:
1. 適用於華語教學的語料庫的構建策略與成果
2. 基於語料庫的教學策略
3. 基於語料庫語體比較與教學應用
4. 學習者語料庫的建立與開發
5. 語料庫與各類語言能力的教學:語音、詞彙、語法、語義、篇章和語用等
6. 基於語料庫的教材、工具書的開發利用
7. 多媒體語料庫的開發
8. 其他相關議題

投稿須知:
投稿截止:本期特刊論文自即日起至2018年8月31日前投稿,先到先審。
投稿信箱:tjcsl@ntnu.edu.tw ,來信請註明「投稿《臺灣華語教學研究》」。
1. 本刊為雙向匿名審稿之學術期刊,中英文稿件均接受。稿件須未曾投稿至其他刊物或在其他地方出版。
2. 為配合匿名審稿,論文內文不得出現任何可辨識作者的文字,並依照本刊的格式規定編輯文稿(連結:https://tinyurl.com/yd8sqqwu)。
3. 投稿前請填寫作者資料表及著作權同意書(連結:https://tinyurl.com/ybenzknm),這兩份資料於投稿時一起繳交。
4. 投稿文章電子檔應為MS WORD,編碼為Big-5、Unicode 或 GB 須全文一致。
5. 文長不超過30頁(A4)或兩萬字。須附中英文摘要(約四分之一頁至半頁),中英文關鍵詞不超過六個。

《臺灣華語教學研究》投稿人基本資料表

《臺灣華語教學研究》著作授權同意書

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十五期(2017.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 「國際漢語」概念的提出和發展  洪歷建、徐慧
    The Concept of Teaching Chinese as an International Language by Lijian Hong, Hui Xu
  • 摘要
    本文描述全球語境下「國際漢語」這一新概念的起源與發展,討論「國際漢語」與其他漢語國際教育概念的異同,以及有關此概念的政策與理論依據。本研究根據聯合國關於少數民族語言權利的觀點,並借鑒有關澳大利亞「國家語言政策」的理論與實踐,以及「國際英語」的相關研究,將國際語言學界的相關理論引入漢語的國際教育研究領域,並以新的、全球化的思維替代傳統的對外漢語教育觀念,以便更好地理解和發展作為「國際性語言」的漢語。

This paper discusses the origin and the development of the new concept of Teaching Chinese as an International Language. It discusses the similarities and dissimilarities between this concept and other concepts that concern the global education of Chinese language and culture. The discussion involves the policies and theories that support the new concept, which include UN’s position on the protection of the linguistic rights of the minority peoples, Australia’s National Policy on Languages and researches in the concept of Global English. The paper attempts to introduce theories and concepts of international linguistic studies into the research and global education of Chinese language. It aims to replace our traditional understanding of teaching Chinese for foreigners with a new concept of global perspective so that we will be able to understand and develop Chinese as an international language.

  1. 臺美兩地華語教師之任務型教學認知理解與推動現況研究  曾妙芬、鍾鎮城
    Chinese Language Teachers’ Perceptions and Implementation of Task-based Language Teaching in Taiwan and the US by Miao-fen Tseng, Chen-Cheng Chun
  • 摘要
    任務型教學雖為目前華語教學的主流方法之一,但在應用上各教學現場常存有差異。本研究探討臺灣及美國兩地華語教師對任務型教學的認知理解,以及在操作執行任務活動時的觀點與信心程度。受試者包含兩地大學的華語教師共292位,採線上問卷方式蒐集資料,並以費雪精確檢定(Fisher’s Exact Test)為檢測工具。結果顯示,兩地大學華語教師對任務型教學皆有適當的認知理解,但程度上有所不同,在執行任務活動的觀點上也有顯著差異。另外,兩地教師在執行任務型教學活動的自我信心程度上均呈現高度信心表現,但在不同任務項目有顯著差別。本文最後回應Thomas(2015)弱式版本(weak version)之任務型教學論點,以突顯臺美兩地任務型教學因地制宜之操作彈性。

Task-based language teaching (TBLT) is a mainstream language teaching method in the field of teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language (TCSL/TCFL). However, there is considerable variation in classroom application. This study investigates perceptions, perspectives, and confidence levels of TCSL/TCFL teachers in Taiwan and the United States who implement TBLT in their classrooms. An online survey was administered to 292 TCSL/TCFL teachers at colleges or universities, and Fisher’s Exact Test was used to statistically analyze survey responses. Results showed that TCSL/TCFL teachers in both groups demonstrated appropriate understanding of TBLT; however, the groups differed significantly in degrees of understanding and perspectives on implementation. Furthermore, although both Taiwanese and U.S. teachers were confident in task implementation, their confidence levels differed in various aspects. Responding to the argument and approach of Thomas (2015), the study verifies the applicability of the weak TBLT version and flexibility of its implementation in Taiwan and the United States.

  1. Mnemonics in the Chinese L2 Lexicon by Jerry Packard
    學習華語為二語的詞語記憶術  Jerry Packard
  • 摘要
    This paper proposes three mnemonic teaching and learning strategies that exploit working memory to make Chinese L2 vocabulary easier to store and retrieve. These strategies follow from experimental results demonstrating that the component of working memory known as Focus of Attention (FA) is as robust in second-language learners as it is in native speakers. The first strategy involves utilizing the natural collocation inherent in Chinese word and phrase content. The second strategy takes advantage of the redundant listing of tones in the Chinese lexicon. The third strategy exploits the well-known homophony inherent in Chinese lexical items. Taken together, these three mnemonic devices may be considered information ‘handles’ that the Chinese language is especially equipped to provide. The information can be used by L2 learners of Chinese to improve their lexical storage and retrieval capability.

本文提出三種利用工作記憶進行的記憶術教學與學習策略,以便使華語詞語對二語學習者更容易儲存與提取。此策略源自近年的實驗,結果顯示工作記憶中的注意力焦點在二語學習者腦中運作的穩健性與母語者相同。第一種策略運用華語詞語與詞組內容中固有的自然搭配;第二種策略利用額外加上的華語詞語聲調標示;第三種策略使用華語詞語中的固有同音詞。綜合而言,這三種記憶機制可視為華語特有的訊息「處理裝置」,華語的二語學習者能加以運用並藉此改善他們的詞語儲存與提取能力。

  1. 華語作為第二語言泰籍學習者聲調之感知研究  陳春美
    Tone Perception of Thai-Speaking Second Language Learners of Mandarin Chinese by Chun-Mei Chen
  • 摘要
    本論文探討華語作為第二語言泰籍學習者對於華語聲調感知的習得歷程,根據華語學習者聲調聽辨感知的追蹤研究,進行華語作為第二語言聲調感知習得的分析。本論文研究對象包含臺灣及泰國地區的泰籍華語學習者共計30名,接受本研究的聲調測試與追蹤。研究結果顯示,在學習時數相同的條件下,臺灣地區的泰籍華語學習者在華語第一聲(高平調)、第三聲(降升調或低調)、第四聲(降調)方面的感知準確率高於第二聲(升調),整體聲調聽辨感知準確率優於泰國地區的華語學習者,證實華語學習者留學目標語地區的經驗會強化泰籍華語學習者的華語聲調感知習得。本研究感知實驗結果支持「語音學習模式」(Flege 1995),並提出以華語課室溝通式情境互動聲調練習,改善泰籍學習者對華語聲調第二聲感知的偏誤。

This study investigates the tone perception of Thai-speaking second language learners of Mandarin Chinese. Thirty Thai-speaking learners of Mandarin Chinese from two groups (Study-Abroad Group and At-Home Group) participated in the longitudinal study in Taiwan and Thailand. Using a pre-test-post-test design, it compared the effects of study abroad on the accuracy rate of Mandarin tonal perception of Thai-speaking learners of Mandarin Chinese. The results showed that most Thai learners of Mandarin Chinese in the Study-Abroad Group perceived Mandarin level tone (Tone 1), low falling-rising tone (Tone 3) and falling tone (Tone 4) more accurately. Study-Abroad Group outperformed At-Home Group on the tonal perception tests. On the other hand, error tokens of Tone 2 from perception tests were reduced in the Study-Abroad Group, after 24 hours of studying Mandarin in Taiwan. Findings from the perception tests support the Speech Learning Model (Flege 1995). This study suggests that communicative tonal drills and explicit phonetic instruction in Mandarin classroom interactions have effects on the tonal perception accuracy of second language learners of Mandarin Chinese.

  1. 義素為本的詞語教學—以關鍵義素組構詞語網絡  歐德芬
    Sememe-based Teaching of Word Meanings—Word Network Constructed with Key Sememes by Te-Fen Ou

摘要
提高華語詞彙素養以及提升詞語使用等級,是中級以上華語學習者提高語言能力的關鍵,因此本文基於聯結理論提出透過義素與詞語之鏈結,以關鍵義素組構詞語網絡進行華語詞語學習。本研究以組詞率高的義素「開」為主體,透過資料庫得出義素「開」的詞語,再由詞頻次數及語料庫例句確認一組具有華語優先學習價值「開」的複合詞,復以認知語言學的語法連綿性導入語義連綿性,分析出「開」具有代表性的特徵屬性,並勾勒4個「開」的意象圖式(image),再據以分析「開」於複合詞中的不同義素。分析結果得出「開」具有6個不同義素,再以之為關鍵義素使「開」的43筆複合詞得以歸併為六組詞語網絡,最後提出詞語網絡教學原則,以供華語教師及教材編撰者參考。

One of the main ways of enhancing the language proficiency of Chinese learners above the intermediate level is to assist them in improving their Chinese vocabulary literacy and usage level. Thus, based on the connection between sememes and words advanced in the Connectionism theory, this study proposes that word teaching can be conducted by using a word network constructed with key sememes. This study retrieves words with the high-frequency sememe, kai, from the corpus, and examines word frequency and sentence use in order to determine a set of kai-compounds that are worth learning in an earlier stage. This study then integrates the syntax-lexicon continuum in cognitive linguistics with the semantic continuum, indicates the attributes of kai, presents its 4 images, and then analyzes the sememes of compounds with kai. The results show that kai has 6 sememes, which can be used to categorize 43 kai-compounds into 6 word networks. Finally, a teaching guide on the 6 word networks is provided as a reference for Chinese teachers and textbook compilers.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十四期(2017.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. A Typological Analysis of Chinese Heritage Language Programs at Universities in North America and Oceania by Karen Huang
    北美紐澳大學華裔中文傳承教育類型分析  黃克文
  • 摘要
    With a growing number of Chinese immigrants around the world, more and more heritage language learners want to learn Chinese at universities in their settling country. It has been widely accepted that the heritage language learners should receive separate curricula because their needs are different from the Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners. However, programs do not always have enough resources to offer a separate instruction for the heritage language learners. There is a need to bridge the gap between theory and practice. This study examines 39 Chinese programs from the top 150 universities in Modern languages in North America and Oceania. Based on the data, a typology of the Chinese heritage language programs is presented. Further analyses illustrate that 77% of the investigated top universities offer heritage courses. However, there seems to be a regional difference between North America and Oceania. Furthermore, the complexity of heritage programs is correlated to Asian/Chinese demographics in the universities or the regions. The university structure and student demographics play an important role in program curricula. Based on these findings, further recommendations are proposed to assist a program to develop its heritage language track in a realistic manner.

隨著海外華人移民增加,愈來愈多華裔學生希望在當地大學學習中文。由於華裔學生學習需求與其他學生不同,分開設置華裔班獲得教育界廣泛認可,然而理想與實際之間差距不小,並非所有中文項目都有能力另外開班。本研究調查美加紐澳共三十九個、在現代外語領域世界排名前一百五十名的中文項目,根據其華裔教學課程做類型學分析。結果發現其中77%設有華裔班,其設置與否、課程完整度與地區及亞裔或華裔的比例相關,華裔班的開設顯然受大學學制與學生族群影響。本研究進而對期望發展其華裔課程的中文系,斟酌實際並提出建議。

  1. 落地生根的胡姬花:新加坡華裔語言形態與身份認同解讀  吳英成、馮耀華
    One People, One Nation, One Singapore: Language Use and Identity among Chinese Singaporeans by Yeng Seng Goh, Yeow Wah Fong
  • 摘要
    新加坡華人從祖籍地中國移居到「星洲」,積極融入居留地生活,成家立業,繁衍後代,入籍成為新加坡公民。經過新加坡建國五十年來積極推動的種族融合政策,不僅潛移默化地建構出有別於中國祖籍地的華人身份認同,新加坡華族社會語言生態也發生重大變化。不同世代、不同家庭常用語、不同教育背景的華裔,對華族語言文化認同以及對華人族群認同出現顯著差異。在全球化時代中,祖籍地中國人與世界各地的華人,應該尊重與接受華裔經過時空變遷後產生的異質事實。

Migrating from homeland in China to Singapore, Singapore Chinese put down roots, have a family and eventually become citizens in Singapore. The implementation of the racial integration policy in the past fifty years has not only forged a distinctive Chinese Singaporean identity, but also brought a major change in the sociolinguistic landscape. There is thus a significant variation in attitudes towards Chinese language and culture and ethnic Chinese identity across generational cohorts, due to different home language use and education background. It is essential, in the age of globalisation, for mainland Chinese and Chinese overseas to recognise and respect the fact that Chinese overseas has evolved a distinctive identity over time and space.

  1. 泰國華裔青年之華語語音習得與偏誤分析  梁月美、劉惠美
    The Mandarin Pronunciation Acquisition and Error Analysis in Thai Chinese Youth by Kamolwan Noppadolsathan and Huei-Mei Liu

摘要
本研究目的在於分析泰國華裔學生在華語語音習得中的偏誤情形,包括習得聲母、聲調發音的偏誤比率和型態,了解泰籍華生在學習華語的語音困難點分布情形及產生偏誤的可能原因。本研究以在台灣學習華語之泰國華裔學生(簡稱泰籍華生)為對象,採單字詞的念讀方式,蒐集泰籍華生的華語聲母、聲調之語音樣本,並讓華語母語者以耳聽知覺的評音方式,判斷個別聲母、聲調的正確率,並加以排序分析其偏誤類型。研究結果顯示,在聲母方面,泰籍華生最常把送氣塞擦音發成擦音,例如ch/tʂ^h/發成sh/ʂ/、q/tɕ^h/發成x/ɕ/,舌尖後濁擦音r/ʐ/發成舌尖中邊音l/l/,舌尖後音發成舌尖前音,zh/tʂ/發成z/ts/,sh/ʂ/發音成s/s/,或者舌面音發成舌尖音,如x/ɕ/發成s/s/。在聲調方面,泰籍華生多數能準確發出華語的四個聲調,惟在陽平發音成去聲的偏誤率較高。期許透過本研究之發音偏誤類型分析、偏誤排序及對泰籍華生之語音教學建議,讓華語教師教授泰籍華生時,能提升其華語語音教學之成效。

The main purposes of this study are to analyze the error patterns and problems of Mandarin initial consonants and tones for Thai Chinese students, and to examine the possible effects Chinese background can impose on Thai Chinese students in the area of Mandarin pronunciation. The sample participants tested in this study are Thai Chinese students who study Mandarin in Taiwan. Single word reading method is used to collect the data of pronunciation of Mandarin initial consonants and tones from Thai Chinese students. Perceptual judgment technique is used to determine the correct rate of each Mandarin initials and tones and their error patterns. In addition, this study ranks the error type frequency on different Mandarin initials 0and tones, showing a more scientific frequency ranking on Thai Chinese pronunciation. The results show that in terms of consonant pronunciations, the main error patterns for Thai Chinese speakers are their pronunciation of affricative sound to be fricative sound, such as ch/tʂ^h/is pronounced as sh/ʂ/, q/tɕ^h/is pronounced as x/ɕ/, Also, their pronunciation of retroflex sound to pronounce as alveolar sound, such as r/ʐ/ is pronounced as l/l/; retroflex sound to pronounce as alveolar sound, such as zh/tʂ/ is pronounced as z/ts/, sh/ʂ/is pronounced as s/s/; or alveolo-palatal sound to be pronounced as alveolar sound, such as x/ɕ/to pronounced as s/s/. In terms of tones, most Thai Chinese students can accurately pronounce the four Mandarin tones; however there is the slightly higher rate of error in the second tone to be pronounced as fourth tone. Based on this error type analysis and error type ranking, it is hoped that Mandarin teachers will be able to improve the effectiveness of Chinese phonetics teaching when interacting with Thai students with Chinese background.

  1. Home Language Environment, Socioeconomic Status and Chinese Oral Competence in Singaporean Chinese Children Aged 6 by Lynn Dee Puah and Chee Lay Tan
    新加坡六歲華族兒童的家庭語言環境、社會經濟地位與華語口語能力  潘霖妮、陳志銳
  • 摘要
    In Singapore, the use of English at home was generally more prevalent among Chinese community with higher socioeconomic status (SES). In this paper, we aim to investigate the current home language environment of Singapore Chinese children, and to find out the relationships between home language, SES, and Chinese oral competence in Singaporean Chinese children. 1233 parents of Singapore Chinese children aged 6 from 73 preschools participated in the questionnaire survey, and 377 Singapore Chinese children aged 6 participated in the language proficiency test. The results showed that Singapore Chinese children aged 6 used more English at home. SES had direct influence on home language exposure. Home language exposure had direct influence on Chinese oral competence. SES had no direct influence on Chinese oral competence. The results suggest that the promotion of Chinese as the main home language is important and imminent. More investigations on home language and school language are needed for policy making.

在新加坡,社會經濟地位較高的華族社群,在家庭中使用英語的現象較為普遍。本研究旨在調查目前新加坡華族兒童的家庭語言環境,以及探討新加坡華族兒童家庭語言環境、社會經濟地位和口語能力之間的關係。本研究的參與者包括來自73所學前中心的6歲華族兒童及他們的家長。其中,1233名家長參與了問卷調查,377名兒童參加了口語能力測試。研究發現,新加坡6歲華族兒童在家多使用英語;社會經濟地位對家庭語言接觸具有預測力;家庭語言接觸對口語能力具有預測力。由此,我們認為鼓勵新加坡華族家庭在家中使用華語是重要且迫切的。為了更好地制定政策,日後需要更多關於家庭語言及學校語言的調查。

  1. 華語道歉策略的差別效應研究  張玉芳
    A Study on The Single and Joint Effects of Apology Component by Yuh-Fang Chang
  • 摘要
    現有探討言談行為「道歉」的相關研究不少,但多數學者聚焦於特定語言表達道歉的策略種類,或比較探討不同語言間表達道歉的策略差異。雖然這部分的研究發現,能幫助我們了解跨文化之間表達道歉策略的差異,但要清楚了解「道歉」言談行為,除了需要知道「表達道歉者」使用什麼策略道歉之外,也應探究每一類的道歉策略、或不同的道歉策略組合,所傳達的道歉誠意,對於「接受道歉者」而言,是否有差異。然而,現有探討道歉語的相關研究,多數是收集表達資料(production data),分析道歉策略的使用差異;或收集認知資料(perception data)針對道歉情境冒犯的嚴重程度、需要道歉的必要性、被冒犯者會接受道歉的可能性等認知差異做比較,都是從「表達道歉者」的角度探討「道歉」的言談行為。少有學者從「被冒犯者」(亦即:接受道歉者)的角度,探討每一類的道歉策略或不同的道歉策略組合,所傳達的道歉誠意,對於「接受道歉者」而言,是否有差異。本研究從「被冒犯者」的角度,探討每一類的道歉策略、不同道歉策略組合以及同一種道歉策略但不同的內容等,它們所傳達的道歉誠意的是否有別,並研究其認知是否有性別的差異。

People apologize differently. The apology strategies that previous studies classified include: (1) IFID expressing regret, (2) IFID requesting forgiveness, (3) intensifier, (4) repair, (5) explanation, (6) lack of intent, (7) self-blame, (8) admission of fact, (9) promise of forbearance, (10) acknowledgement, (11) concern, (12) minimizing, (13) alerter, (14) justification. Most of the research literature on the speech act of apology collected production data to examine the speech act of apology of a specific culture or compared the speech act of apology across cultural groups. The issue concerning whether and how different types of apology strategy work differently in changing the perception of transgressors has attracted relatively little attention from researchers. This study is intended to contribute to the body of research on pragmatics by examining the single and joint effects of apology components on the victim’s perception of transgressors.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十三期(2016.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 二語學習者與母語者穿戴類動詞的心理詞彙網絡之組織研究  錢旭菁
    A comparison study on the mental lexicon of native Chinese speakers and English learners of Chinese by Xujing Qian
  • 摘要
    人腦中的詞語是一個有組織的系統,這個系統一般被稱為心理詞彙。由一個詞聯想到另一個詞,反映了心理詞彙中詞語之間的聯繫。聯想實驗是一個研究人腦中心理詞彙的組織方式的常用方法。本文以詞語聯想的方法,考察母語為英語的漢語初級、中級、高級二語學習者心理詞彙中「穿、戴、脫、披」這四個動詞的組織方式與漢語母語者的異同。通過分析聯想詞和刺激詞之間的各種關係,本研究發現,二語學習者心理詞彙中的詞語網絡比母語者的稀疏,表現出他們詞語網絡中的詞語比漢語母語者少,詞與詞之間的聯繫不如漢語母語者的緊密。二語學習者心理詞彙中穿戴類四個動詞之間尚未建立任何語義方面的聯繫,這些動詞的組合聯繫的強度也比母語者弱。此外,二語學習者心理詞彙中的非語義聯繫比母語者多。二語學習者心理詞彙中意義無關的同音詞以及聲符相近的詞聯繫在一起不利於他們對這些詞的識別和提取。從詞義方面來說,二語者的心理詞彙中只涉及這四個動詞「穿脫衣物」這一最基本的義項,而漢語母語者心理詞彙包括這幾個動詞的多個義項。根據上述研究結果,本文從教學內容和教學順序兩方面對穿戴類動詞的教學提出了具體的建議。

The lexicon in human’s mind is an organized system which is called Mental Lexicon. Word association which reflects the relations of words is a common research method to study the organization of Mental Lexicon. Based on word association, we compare the organization of four action verbs related to Wearing in the Mental Lexicon between elementary to higher-level English speaking learners of Chinese and native Chinese. The four verbs were chuan (to wear clothes), dai (to wear glasses, hat, gloves, caps, etc.), tuo (to take off clothes, shoes, gloves, etc.) and pi (to drape over). Analyzing the relations between the response and the stimulus, we found that the word net connections of the learners were much sparse than those of the natives. The number of words in the net of learners was less than that of natives while their non-semantic relations were more than those of the natives. Concerning the meanings of the four verbs, the Mental Lexicon of learners only indicates the meaning of "put on/take off clothes", while the Mental Lexicon of natives Chinese shows several senses of these verbs. Suggestions of teaching contents and teaching sequences of these four verbs are proposed in this writing.

  1. 文類教學法在中文二語實用文教學的運用  邱佳琪
    Application of genre pedagogy in Chinese second language teaching and learning of practical writing by Cha Kie Hiew
  • 摘要
    在常用文類的教學中,二語學生需要學習如何理解並回應各種溝通管道的信息,以滿足生活中的社交需求,達到語言的溝通目標。實用文是一種常用的交換信息文類,因此是二語教學的重要文類。二語學習者除了掌握文類結構的概念,更需要對於不同情境下適用的內容及語言形式有所了解,以便準確、恰當地溝通或分享信息,而這些學習需求與交際目的及語境等因素是息息相關的。因此本文從系統功能語言學(Halliday 1994)的角度分析20 位中文第二語言學習者所寫的建議書,發現其中表現較弱的部分包括文步、語旨、語式、詞彙、情態、連接、指稱等等。此外也進一步通過「閱讀促進寫作」(Reading to Learn, Learning to Write)文類教學法進行教學設計,以針對中文二語的實用文寫作弱項,提出具體的建議與改善方法。「閱讀促進寫作」教學法結合系統功能語言學與支架教學的概念,形成從閱讀到寫作的完整教學設計。一方面,系統功能語言學提供了關於語言、文類、語境的系統性知識,有助於學習者掌握不同文類的結構與語言特點並應用於寫作;另一方面,此教學法在近年來經過不斷的實踐與完善,已證實能有效地提升學生的語文能力。相較於一般常見從內容、結構、語言等層面的寫作分析,本研究從系統功能語言學的角度,進一步細化寫作評量的標準與層面,從學習者寫作的真實語料分析其弱項,並採取具體的教學策略,使教學設計能有針對性地符合學生的學習需求。

Practical text or practical writing is the genre which carries messages to exchange information between sender and receiver. It’s important to learn how to interpret various information received in daily life and to respond appropriately for the social interaction purpose. And second language learners not only need to understand the concept of different genre, but also need to possess the knowledge about context and linguistic features of various texts to communicate well with others. Therefore this paper analyzes the practical writing of 20 CSL (Chinese as a second language) students and concludes their performance is generally weak especially in terms of stages, tenor, mode, ideation, appraisal, conjunction, and reference. Based on the analysis of CSL students’ authentic materials, this paper further applies the 「Reading to Learn, Learning to Write」pedagogy to design the teaching of practical writing with the concepts of genre, context, and language. Developed from the theory of Systemic Functional Linguistic, Reading to Learn pedagogy has been recognized as one of the most effective and well-designed genre study from theoretical and pedagogical aspects. The significance of this paper is to understand the performance and learning needs of CSL students, and to develop effective teaching design which can help to enhance the teaching and learning of Chinese practical writing.

  1. CEFR與ACTFL初級閱讀能力描述對應研究:以「兒童華語文能力測驗」為媒介  趙家璧、藍珮君、陳柏熹
    Aligning ACTFL and CEFR proficiency levels: utilizing children’s Chinese competency certification by Chia-Pi Chao, Pei-Jiun Lan, and Po-Hsi Chen
  • 摘要
    本研究採用國家華語測驗推動工作委員會參照CEFR 初級使用者(A 等)能力指標所研發的兒童華語文閱讀測驗為媒介,透過書籤法(Bookmark Method)標準設定程序,連結歐洲共同語文參考架構(CEFR)與美國外語教學協會能力指標(ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines)的初級閱讀能力,期能分析 CEFR 與ACTFL 初級閱讀能力描述的對應關係。本研究邀集11 位專家採用書籤法進行兩回合的標準設定研究,使用兒童華語文閱讀測驗題目,對ACTFL 初級與中級的能力描述進行標準設定。研究結果顯示:1. 低於CEFR A1 以下的Pre-A1 級約與ACTFL 初級初等、初級中等相當,而A1 級與初級高等、中級初等相當,至於A2 級則與中級中等、中級高等相當;2. 在標準設定結果的效度驗證方面,本研究提出程序性效度與內部效度兩項資料;3. 在定義初級閱讀能力時,CEFR 與ACTFL 有數項共同特徵和共通的學習進程。本研究結果有助於兒童測驗使用者透過CEFR 與ACTFL 的語言能力架構理解測驗結果,同時也提供華語文教學上有關CEFR 與ACTFL 對應的客觀依據。

ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines (ACTFL) and Common European Framework of Reference for Language (CEFR) are two major language proficiency guidelines adopted internationally in the fields of language teaching and assessment. This study aims to link the framework of CEFR and ACTFL by utilizing the Children’s Chinese Competency Certification (CCCC). 11 experts have participated in a two-round standard setting procedure applying the Bookmark Method. The CCCC Reading is a standardized test designed based on the CEFR proficiency descriptions for Basic User (A1-A2). The standard setting procedure was performed on the CCCC Reading focus on ACTFL novice and intermediate levels. The research suggests the following results. First, the pre-A1 reading proficiency which is lower than CEFR A1 is equivalent to the novice low and novice mid levels in ACTFL. The CEFR A1 reading proficiency is equivalent to ACTFL novice high and intermediate low levels and the CEFR A2 is equivalent to ACTFL intermediate mid and intermediate high levels. Second, the evidence of procedural validity and internal validity are provided to support the validation of the standard setting. Finally, in describing reading proficiency and learning progress in the beginner levels, the process of standard setting has revealed similar characteristics in both the CEFR and the ACTFL framework. The results of this study allow the test takers of CCCC to interpret test results with the language proficiency framework which they are familiar with. It can also provide language learners and educators with a more objective correspondence between CEFR and ACTFL.

  1. 華語教材評估指標初探:二語習得視角  李郁錦、 陳振宇
    A preliminary investigation of the criteria for evaluating Chinese teaching materials: a second language acquisition perspective by Yu-Chin Li and Jenn-Yeu Chen
  • 摘要
    本文從二語習得理論的視角出發,根據教材編撰的相關理論,提出一套華語教材研析的指標,期能做為華語教學設計或研析的參考。有關二語習得的主要因素和要件,雖學界仍無定論,但因其無論在外語教學或教材設計都有著至關重要的影響力。因此本文搜羅國內外與二語習得及教材編撰相關的書籍及論文共117 本/篇做為擬定指標的基礎。本研究首先彙整國內、外二語習得及教材設計的觀點,做綜合性的討論。其次,從中萃取出一套教材評析模式,此模式分:「語言」、「認知」、「教學」與「學習者」等四個層面,有17 項指標、80 項細目的教材評析工具之原型。此評析工具,除了可檢視二語習得相關理論的應用之外,也可以做為教材設計的參考指標,有助於將二語理論實際應用於教學及教材設計上。

Primarily based on theoretical views of second language acquisition (SLA), this article aims to design a prototype of indicators for Chinese teaching materials analysis from a pedagogical perspective. To this end, first of all, we briefly discussed what SLA theories can contribute to the teaching of Chinese as a second language. Secondly, we compiled and discussed the most relevant SLA and Materials Development in Language Teaching bibliography in the last few decades. At each point, based on the discussed theories, we attempted to extract indicators for the purpose of analyzing Chinese teaching materials. Eventually, we designed a prototype tool with 4 different levels: (1) Language, (2) Cognition, (3) Teaching Approach, and (4) Students which include 17 indicators, a total of 80 items. It could be used as a reference for analyzing materials as well as for designing them.

  1. A multilevel analysis of the linguistic features affecting Chinese text readability by Jia-Fei Hong, Yao-Ting Sung, Ho-Chiang Tseng, Kuo-En Chang, and Ju-Ling Chen
    影響中文文本閱讀難易度的多層次語言特徵分析  洪嘉馡、宋曜廷、曾厚強、 張國恩、陳茹玲
  • 摘要
    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the characteristics of text comprehension. We use an approach that includes 32 linguistic features from four main levels (word, semantic, syntactic, and cohesive) that relate to Chinese text readability. The aim is to overcome the restrictions that resulted from adopting only surface linguistic features in investigating text readability in the past. In the present study, the research materials include 386 texts from Chinese textbooks for Taiwan elementary school students in six grades. The texts are reasonably assumed to increase in complexity of readability from grade 1 to grade 6. The readability of each of the 32 features is derived from the statistical trend analysis with respect to the grades. It is hoped that the results of this study can be of significant use in teaching Chinese reading in Chinese as a second language.

本文研究文本理解的特性,論述採用詞彙類、語意類、句法類和文章凝聚性四個主要層次的32 個語言特徵,以探討中文文本閱讀難易度,克服前人僅採用一些表面語言特徵的限制。研究的實驗材料取自臺灣三個版本的小學一年級到六年級的課本共386 篇文本,從低年級到高年級的課文當作是文本從簡易到相對繁難的安排,這32 個語言特性的閱讀難易度以統計學的趨向分析依文本在年級的高低分布計算出來。過去華語為二語的文本分析大都採用學生偏誤的語料,本研究則以正規的文本為依據,做出中文文本閱讀難易度,希望研究成果能對華語為二語教學有所貢獻。