分類:《臺灣華語教學研究》TJCSL

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第二期(2011.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 網路科技與參與學習:三種網路工具在中文教學中的作用  靳洪剛、路聖潔
    Participatory Learning and Internet Technology: The Use of Three Web Tools in TCFL by Hong-Gang Jin and Sheng-Jie Lu
  • 摘要
    本文旨在調查研究參與性網路科技在語言教學及中文教學中的作用。本文選擇了三種常用的網路工具進行比較、分析,以便瞭解各種網路工具在中文教學中所提供的參與度、互動性及其目標語使用機會。這三種網路工具分別為:(1)討論板;(2)博客;(3)Skype。21名在美國學習中文的大學生參與了本項調查。本項調查的結果對電腦網路輔助教學及中文教學領域有如下幾個方面的貢獻:(1)本項研究進一步證實參與性網路工具可以促進學習者積極參與各種互動學習;(2)本項調查還證實,如果教學設計合理,由參與性網路工具引起的參與學習可以提高學習者接觸、使用目標語的機會;(3)本項研究提出7評估網路工具的參與度及互動性的六項標準;(4)與此同時,本調查還建立了一套測量網路工具參與度及互動性的衡量系統。

This study explores Chinese language learning and instruction in a technology-rich, collaborative and participatory learning environment. Specifically, we compared and analyzed three types of participatory web tools for learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in order to understand each tool’s participatory functions, interactive features and impact on target language use. The study involved 21 U.S. undergraduate students who are learners of CFL. The three participatory web tools studied were discussion boards, blogs, and Skype.This study contributes to the field of technology-assisted language education and to the teaching CFL in four ways: (1) by providing evidence that the use of participatory web tools promotes participatory learning and authentic interaction; (2) by showing that if the pedagogical design is sound and the use of technology is appropriate, participatory learning that has been facilitated by participatory web tools increases learners’ target language use; (3) by developing six standards for evaluating the degree of participation and interaction induced by different web tools; and (4) by establishing a system to measure the degree of participation and interactivity induced by web tools used in second language instruction.

  1. 從「依」、「據」與「依據」談華語近義詞教學  吳佩晏、鄭縈
    Near Synonyms in Teaching Chinese as Second Language: A Case study to “yī”, “jù”, and “yījù” by Pei-Yen Wu and Ying Cheng
  • 摘要
    In this paper we investigate the distributional differences in semantic and syntactic patterns of Chinese near-synonyms ”依(yī)”, ”據(jù)”, and ”依據(yījù)” based on the data from ”Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Mandarin Chinese” ( Sinica Corpus ) and the sense distinction of Chinese WordNet. It has been observed that ”依(yī)”, ”據(jù)”, and ”依據(yījù)” are near-synonyms , but they have different syntactic distributions or collocations. Our analysis provides frequency-based teaching ordering, from high frequency (依) to low frequency (依據), from high sense frequency to low sense frequency, which will help Chinese second language learners to distinguish these three near-synonyms with efficiency
  1. 漢語語序的語法意義在對外漢語語法教學中的實際應用  何寶璋
    The Application of Positional Meaning in Chinese Syntax to Pedagogical Grammar of Teaching Chinese as a Second Language by Bao-Zhang He
  • 摘要
    語言學的研究成果可以服務於實際的對外漢語教學,使教學更加事半功倍,有的放矢。然而,二者往往相互脫節,使語言學研究成果被束之高閣,而對外漢語教學並沒有真正受益。本文通過實例介紹如何將「漢語語序的語法意義」這一現代漢語的規律運用到實際對外漢語教學中來。意在縮短漢語語言學研究和對外漢語教學之間的距離,使對外漢語教學受益於漢語語言學本體研究,使從事對外漢語教學的年輕教師和在校的對外漢語教學專業的同學們受益。

Teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language can benefit greatly from research results of Chinese linguistics, to make the teaching more efficiently and purposefully. However, there are gaps between the two. Consequently, the results of linguistic research are left untouched and from which the teaching Chinese as a foreign language is not gaining anything. This short paper is to demonstrate, by using example of positional meaning in Chinese syntax, how research results of Chinese linguistics can be applied to the teaching Chinese as a foreign language so as to shorten the distance between the two fields, to let the teaching Chinese as a second language benefit from linguistic research, and to help both the young teachers who are teaching foreigners learning Chinese and those who are in school readying themselves to get into the field.

  1. 走入主流:美國大學先修(AP)中文考試2007-2010結果分析  陳雅芬
    Going Mainstream: An Analysis of 2007-2010 AP Chinese Exam Results by Yea-Fen
  • 摘要
    隨著中國經濟、政治、軍事勢力的崛起,全球掀起了一股中文熱。在此潮流下,美國大學理事會設置大學先修(AP)中文課程、考試更帶動了高中生學習中文的熱潮,也同時提升了中文在美國主流社會的重要性。自2006年秋季AP課程開始設置、2007年春季年第一次AP考試至今已五年,有關AP中文課程、考試及其影響力的討論仍在持續中。本文將從大學理事會公布的考生人數、考生成分、考試成績來分析四年來AP中文考試的結果,此結果也將與AP考試其他AP外語考試(法文、德文、意大利文、日文、西班牙文)、尤其是與AP中文同時設立的AP日文及與中文同樣有眾多傳承語學習者的西班牙文做比較。最後筆者也探討AP中文考試對美國中文教育正面及反面的影響。

As China has gained prominence in the global arena as an economic, political, and military power, the study of Chinese has become increasingly popular. In response, the College Board of the United States launched the Advanced Placement (AP) Chinese Language and Culture Course and Exam, further driving high school students’ interest in learning Chinese and raising the status of Chinese in mainstream American society. It has been more than four years since the implementation of the first AP Chinese courses in fall 2006 and the AP Chinese Exam in spring 2007, but discussion about the AP Chinese Language and Culture Course and Exam and its influence is still taking place. This paper will analyze data released by the College Board regarding the number, demographics, and scores of the AP Chinese examinees over the last four years, and compare the results from the AP Chinese Exam and AP exams in other world languages (French, German, Italian, Japanese and Spanish) , focusing in particular on the AP Japanese Exam and AP Spanish Exam. Finally the author will explore the positive and negative impacts the AP Chinese Exam has had on Chinese language education in the United States.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第一期(2010.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 對外漢語聲調教學之現狀與教學法  刑志群
    Tone Pedagogy and Acquisition in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language by Janet Zhiqun Xing
  • 摘要
    本文通過對比分析漢語語音的特點,以及前人對漢語聲調和語調教學的研究結果,探討對外漢語聲調教學,特別是對英漢語之聲調教學之教學法。結果表明漢語內部的聲調和語調的干擾以及學生母語的干擾是造成他們學習漢語聲調困惑的兩個主要原因。根據這種情況,筆者提出聲調和語調互動的教學法,並且通過教學實踐演示、說明在教學中只有強調片語的聲調和語調的互動,學生才能真正掌握、學好漢語的聲調。

This study investigates the current popular methodologies used for teaching Chinese tones to non-native speakers, particularly English native speakers. Contrastive analysis is used to show that the difficulty in acquiring Chinese tones arises from two types of interference: interference between tones and intonations, and interference between Chinese intonations and those of the students’ native language. Evidence from this study suggests that the best way to help students learn tones is to teach phrasal / sentential tones and intonation, rather than individual tones.

  1. 詞義成分在TCSL的分析與應用-從「吃麥當勞」談起  許長謨
    Semantic Components and Their Analysis and Application in TCSL-Taking “Eating McDonald’s” as an Example by Chang-Mo Hsu
  • 摘要
    語言中的語義問題常依附在語音或構詞語法中呈現,形成語言的結構關係(Structuralism)。對外華語教學的學習者多屬成年的外國人,溝通時比較重視語義的正確性。由於學習者的音韻、語法能力薄淺,直接影響到對語(詞)義的領會,而其隨機或積蓄而迸發的語義問題往往或因跳脫教學者母語的構詞與語用習性,致教學者措手不及;或因平日習焉不察的問題在教學當場提問,而使教師難以第一時間回應。因此,華語教師須有一定的認知。在詞義的基本分析時,音韻問題一確立,就須直接面對構詞或語法的橫向組合(Syntagmatic)關係,先由上下語境(Co-text)確立語感的正確度,再縱向的嘗試其他的聚合(Paradigmatic)關係,以確認相似詞的正確度。後設檢驗中,符號學三角形(Triangle of Semiology)中「Word(Symbol)- Thought(Concept)- Thing(Referent)」的遞延關係是個分析原則。但在延伸應用或舉例時,使用語意成分(Semantic Components)的析離及上下義位的檢竅,或傳統語義學同義詞或反義詞等觀念做對比來檢驗語義的合宜度,都可以增進教學時對華語詞義的確認。本論文意圖利用幾個實際有效的角度,以實際教學為例,探討語義學(Semantics)的分析與應用。由於範圍過大,因此擬從「我們去吃麥當勞」一句漸漸通行的話語談起,舉用引出相關的教學原理,進以語義學理論論析如何輔助對外華語之教學。

Problems with semantics are often related to phonetic and syntactic issues, and reveal the nature of the structure of language. Most learners of Chinese as a second language are foreign adults, for whom accurate meaning is very important, but whose insufficient phonological and syntactic competence obstructs comprehension. However, their semantics-related questions during class are often impossible for teachers to answer using only their native speaker intuition. As a result, common but easily-missed problems frequently baffle first-time instructors. Therefore, an effective Chinese language teacher should possess some understanding of semantics.At the basic level of semantic analysis, once phonological problems are established, the cross-sectional syntagmatic relationship between morphology and syntax must be directly confronted. First, context must be used to determine the accuracy of one’s language intuition, and then other paradigmatic relationships must be tested longitudinally to confirm the accuracy of similar words. The ”Word (Symbol) – Thought (Concept) – Thing (Referent)” relationship of the Triangle of Semiology is an important analytical principle for attaining a proper understanding. However, while extending its application, we must use semantic components to examine the hyponymy, or the synonyms, polysemy and antonyms in classical semantics, and compare the appropriate usage. This can enhance the effectiveness of Chinese teaching.This paper attempts to use pedagogy as an example, and from several realistic perspectives explores the analysis and application of semantics. In order to narrow the scope of this study, we begin with the example sentence ”Eating McDonald’s” to elicit relevant pedagogical principles, and expound on ways for semantic theories to support the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language.

  1. 漢語動詞「生」的語意發展  曹逢甫、 陳菘霖
    The Semantic Development of the Chinese Verb “Sheng” by Feng-Fu Tsao and Sung-Lin Chen
  • 摘要
    本文從「以人體為本」和SUMO知識本體架構,歸結出動詞「生1」(亦即人類傳宗接代)始於人類自身的經驗行為,從語意核心開始呈現「幅射結構」的發展分作三條路徑:藉著隱喻機制映射到動物、植物、事態或事件的出現,「生1」的語意逐步泛化為「生2」(植物的出生、事態的發生)。再從「生1」的生殖模式,引申為「活著」即「生3」;人類的生殖模式從熟悉的母體到外在世界,可以表示對於事件的主體(人、事、物)呈現不了解、不熟悉的程度即「生4」。

This article analyzes the Chinese verb ”sheng” by using the concept of embodied cognition, and utilizing the SUMO ontology framework. The results show that the semantic core of sheng, the verb sheng 1, refers to human reproduction and therefore originates from human behavior. From this core the word developed in three main directions. Sheng 2 developed through metaphorical generalization to refer to the birth of animals or plants, or the beginning of an event. Sheng 3 developed the meaning ”to be alive” through sheng 1’s meaning of reproduction. Finally, sheng 4, which expresses a person or thing’s lack of understanding of or unfamiliarity with another person, place or situation, developed from the concept of leaving a mother’s womb and entering an unfamiliar world.

  1. 華語近義詞辨識難易度與學習策略初探  蔡美智
    Preliminary Study on Strategies for Learning Near-Synonyms in TCSL by Mei-Chih Tsai
  • 摘要
    學習第二語言到了中高級階段,語言表達準確與否關鍵不再是語法,而是詞彙。祖人植(1999)考察中高級階段華語詞彙偏誤,發現主要難點在於近義混淆,偏誤情形以動詞為最,名詞、形容詞次之。本文針對這三個詞類,外加副詞,探討相關近義詞群難以辨識的原因。研究方法採問卷調查,首先比對近義詞詞典揀選詞群,參照近義詞工具書所附說明和練習題製作問卷;其次發放就讀中高級華語課程的外籍生作答,回收後統計偏誤率,藉以評量詞群難易度:進而檢視說明內容和答題表現,確認學習難點,探討相關學習策略和教學策略。

Language learning at intermediate or high levels is mainly a matter of mastering vocabulary. According to Zu (1999), the use of near-synonyms is a major problem for learners at these levels. This study uses questionnaires to test how well intermediate and advanced CSL students can distinguish synonymous verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs. The error frequency in these questionnaires is used to evaluate the difficulty of distinguishing pairs of synonyms. Learning and teaching strategies are also discussed.

  1. 漢語的動詞刪略句與英漢對比分析  魏廷冀
    VP-ellipsis in Mandarin Chinese: A Comparative Analysis by Ting-Chi Wei
  • 摘要
    本文解析漢語動詞刪略句之焦點結構,從而理解漢語動詞刪略結構的訊息本質;更進一步從英漢對比分析的角度,比對英漢動詞刪略句之異同。我們不僅釐清了漢語動詞刪略句之焦點結構外,也針對英漢動詞刪略句的指涉及類型,作了清楚的比較,期望有助於了解此兩種語言動詞刪略句的基本差異,並冀望在華語教學上有所啟發。

This paper analyzes the focus structure of sentences with verb phrase ellipsis in Mandarin Chinese, and also contrasts ellipsis in English and Mandarin Chinese. Some pedagogical suggestions on the instruction of Mandarin VP-ellipsis are offered on the basis of these findings.

  1. 華語拒絕請求的策略分析:語體與語境的作用  謝佳玲
    An Analysis of Strategies for Refusing Requests in Chinese: Stylistic an Contextual Factors by Chia-Ling Hsieh
  • 摘要
    本研究根據真實的請求情境歸納華語的拒絕模式,詮釋在特定語體與語境變因作用下之運作特徵。語料來自台灣大學生與研究助理的對話內容,溝通媒介包括電話與電郵;拒絕標的包括勞心與勞力請求。結果指出,拒絕行為一般包含意圖明確的拒絕與阻因兩個成分,在電話中出現順序不定,偶以迂迴策略取代;在電郵中偏好先說明阻因再拒絕,並搭配更多道謝與道歉的禮貌策略。兩種語料的差異反映媒介的特性,電話接近口語語體;電郵接近書面語體。請求類型亦影響拒絕模式,內在阻因多用以拒絕勞心的請求;外在阻因拒絕勞力的請求,可見拒絕行為與請求標的有其相依性。結論顯示語言、語體與語境的互動,並為語用分析與華語教學的聯繫提供例證。

This study classifies Chinese refusals and examines their usage in particular styles and contexts. The refusals examined were in response to real-life request. The language data is drawn from telephone and email conversations between Taiwanese university students and research assistants. The results show that refusals tend to be explicit, and consist of a refusal and an impeding factor. In refusals made over the telephone these two components do not appear in a fixed order, and are occasionally replaced by indirect refusal strategies. In email the impeding factor often precedes the refusal, and politeness strategies such as gratitude and apology appear more often. These differences reflect the contrast between the styles of spoken and written communication. The nature of the request also affects the refusal. Internal impeding factors are often given in response to requests involving mental labor, while external impeding factors are given in response to requests that involve physical labor. The study’s conclusion explains the interaction between language, style and context, and provides examples that link pragmatic analysis and Chinese language teaching.