Table of Contents
- 二語學習者仿寫對偶修辭格對其漢語作文影響分析 吳雙
Effects of CS/FL Learners’ Imitating Chinese Antithesis Figure of Speech in their Writing by Shuang Wu
Antithesis figure of speech is the most traditional and common Chinese rhetorical device. Due to its productive generalization, it might help CS/FL (Chinese as a Second/Foreign Language) learners quickly acquire Chinese words, phrases and sentences. In the history of teaching CS/FL, antithesis figure of speech has been used for quite a long time in pedagogy, for it can facilitate learners’ constructing and enlarging semantic networks of vocabulary by mastering the internal structures of words, phrases and sentences. For the purpose of evaluating the learning effects of Chinese antithesis figure of speech, we conducted an experiment to investigate CSL learners’ production of antithesis couplets. Results show that through the treatment of teaching antithesis couplets as templates by asking the participants to imitate them, their writings had the following characteristics: (1) fourcharacter couplets such as feng ge shuli, die wu huaqian ‘Bees sing songs among trees and butterflies dance around flowers’, (2) not strict antithesis/duel couplets, (3) ke construction, and (4) errors in antithesis couplets. After the teaching treatment, in the learners’ compositions often appeared antithesis, parallel and quasi-parallel sentences. Based on the results, we argue that the production of antithesis couplets consists of perception, construction and output stages in information processing procedure. We also suggest that in order to increase CS/FL learners’ accuracy in using words, complexity in making sentences, and fluency and native-likeness in forming texts, teachers can raise their awareness of analyzing the meanings and forms of Chinese words by providing practices in imitation of antithesis couplets.
- 基於新加坡小學華文教材語料庫的語音負擔分析 羅慶銘
Phonological Functional Load in Singapore Primary School Textbooks: A Corpus-based Analysis by Qing-Ming Luo
Phonological functional load refers to the amount of information carried by a phonetic unit (consonants, vowels, tones and syllables) in a phonological transmission process and is also called phoneme functional load. As an important phonological quantification indicator, textbook phonological load has a direct or indirect impact on Chinese phonetic acquisition, classification of phonetic elements, and the content arrangement of phonetics teaching. Applying statistical principles to the Singapore primary school Chinese textbook corpus, this paper seeks to compute the phonological load of the textbook phonetic constituent elements, including consonants, vowels, and tones. Results indicate that the phonological load of Chinese consonants, vowels and tones is uneven. Vowels in general have the highest phonological load, followed by consonants, with tones having the lowest phonological load. However, an examination from the point of view of average load reveals that tones command the highest phonological load, with a greater difference in the phonological load of the internal subsystems of consonants, vowels and tones. The main cause for the difference in Chinese phonological load lies in a difference in the usage frequency of various phonetic constituent elements, with frequency being proportional to phonological load. However, frequency is not the sole factor that changes phonological load. The internal configuration of phonetic systems and the opposing or complimentary relationship between phonetic units would also directly affect the phonological load of binary oppositions. These preliminary conclusions are of reference value to the research and pedagogy of phonetic acquisition of Chinese as a second language.
- 以觀音靈籤作為華語閱讀教材及其教學設計 胡文菊、汪娟
Developing a Reading Material Based on Kuan Yin Temple Oracle for Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language by Wen-Chu Hu and Chuan Wang
When people are perplexed with some questions in their life, one of the Asian/Chinese ways of approaching the problem is to seek guidance from Gods or Goddesses through temple divination. The oracle/poetry that one gets from the temple is the God/Goddess’ answer to his/her question. In Taiwan, Long Shan Temple is one of the must-visit attractions for many foreigners and Kuan Yin Oracle Board is used there. Temple divination is a mysterious ritual for many foreigners. Temple oracle therefore, we think, might become interesting and authentic reading material for Chinese language learners. Kuan Yin Temple Oracle is widely used in Chinese temples in different countries and it has a hundred poems written in classical Chinese. In this research, we firstly study the origin, the function and the structure of Kuan Yin Temple Oracle. We also review the literature on strategies of teaching classical text with the discussion of its role in teaching Chinese as a foreign language. We then list our guiding principles and methods of developing the Kuan Yin Oracle reading material tailored for foreign learners of Chinese. Finally, we try to design the teaching strategies for this special reading material, including several task-based learning activities. Suggestions for future research and practice are also provided.
- 探討《新版實用視聽華語》與「華測八千詞」選用詞語之異同 石伊婷、陳浩然、李維潔、楊惠媚
A Study of the Vocabulary Items Used in Practical “Audio-Visual Chinese” and “TOCFL Chinese 8,000 Vocabulary” by Francess Yi-Ting Shih, Howard Hao-Jan Chen, Wei-Jie Lee, and Hui-Mei Yang
According to the report of The Steering Committee for the Test Of Proficiency-Huayu (SC-TOP), most of CSL (Chinese as a Second Language) learners in Taiwan taking The Test of Chinese as a Foreign Language (TOCFL) use ＂Practical Audio-Visual Chinese＂ series as the primary learning material. Thus, the content and vocabulary in the series have a clear impact on CSL learners’ learning and on their test performance. However, very few studies focused on comparing the vocabulary used in ＂Practical Audio-Visual Chinese＂ (PAVC wordlist) with ＂Chinese 8,000 Vocabulary＂ (TOCFL wordlist). In this study, we compared the vocabulary in the PAVC series of textbooks and TOCFL wordlist and found: (1) 3,693 words are shared by both PAVC and TOCFL wordlists, while 2,085 words in PAVC are not covered in TOCFL list. And TOCFL has 3,776 words that are not found in PAVC. (2) The criteria for selecting words in PAVC wordlist are different from those in TOCFL wordlist. (3) The PAVC contains more vocabulary items related to Taiwan features than TOCFL wordlist does. (4) The TOCFL wordlist contains a larger number of -er words than the PAVC does. Based on the results of comparison, we suggested that 314 high-frequency words in the PAVC could be included in TOCFL wordlist, and 289 words from the TOCFL wordlist could be incorporated into the PAVC. The findings of this study can serve as a useful reference for Chinese learners, teachers, textbook compilers, and language test agencies.
- Effect of Home Language on the Chinese Lexical Ability of 6-year-old Singaporean Children by Puah Lynn Dee and Tan Chee Lay
With English language dominating social use in Singapore, there is a rising trend of English being the dominant home language in local Chinese families. To better understand children’s Chinese language ability and their language exposure, the Singapore Centre for Chinese Language conducted a 2-year research project entitled ＂An Investigation of Singaporean Chinese Preschoolers’ Language Use & Exposure＂. A total of 1,233 parents of Kindergarten 2 children (aged 6) participated in a survey, and 372 children of these 1,233 parents subsequently participated in a picture description and a character recognition test. This paper aims to examine the effect of home language on the Chinese lexical ability of 6-year-old Singaporean Chinese children. Eleven children from dual income family were selected and divided into three home language groups: CHL (Chinese as main home language), CEHL (Chinese and English as main home languages) and EHL (English as main home language). Video- and audio-recordings were transcribed by using CHAT transcription. Word types, word tokens and mean length of utterance were analyzed by CLAN program. Two-way ANOVA analyses with home language and gender as independent variables were performed separately on word types, word tokens and mean length of utterance. The results reveal that lexical ability of the 11 6-year-old Chinese children has no significant difference across three home language groups in terms of the lexicon acquired. However, home language has significant effect on word type and mean length of utterance. The lack of function words causes them problems in putting words together.