《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十期(2015.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 二語學習者仿寫對偶修辭格對其漢語作文影響分析  吳雙
    Effects of CS/FL Learners’ Imitating Chinese Antithesis Figure of Speech in their Writing by Shuang Wu
  • 摘要
    中國傳統和普遍的修辭形式對偶修辭格對於二語學習者而言,蘊含著強大的語言習得和生成功能,有助於二語學習者快速習得漢語字詞文句,而且在漢語作為第二語言教學的歷史上,對偶早就作為一種重要教學手段在國外長期應用,這是由於它有利於學習者有機構建和擴展漢語詞彙網路,說明學習者瞭解和掌握漢語短語的基本構造,從而能快速掌握漢語字詞並學會造句。為了瞭解二語學習者學習對偶修辭格的成效,我們設計了實驗,探索二語寫作教學過程中對偶修辭格的輸入對學習者漢語寫作品質的影響。實驗結果顯示,留學生仿寫的對偶句特點是,出現很多仿「蜂歌樹裡,蝶舞花前」的四字工對,很多不那麼嚴格的寬對,不少流水對,很多標準的「可字句」,一些抄寫或引用的對偶句,還有對偶句仿寫出現諸多偏誤。通過留學生在做完仿寫練習後寫出的作文,我們發現出現了對偶句,也出現了排比句和準排比句,還出現了不少書面語感濃郁的語句。通過對仿寫對偶修辭格過程的原理分析,對偶句仿寫產出過程可以分為構造階段、轉換階段、執行階段,體現出「話語的接受—話語的建構—話語的輸出」這一資訊加工處理流程的特點。最後,筆者建議教材及教學中可增設有意識的增字類仿寫練習,通過對漢語字詞句意與形式的習得,提高產出能力,並提高其用詞的準確性、語句的複雜性、流利性和地道性。

Antithesis figure of speech is the most traditional and common Chinese rhetorical device. Due to its productive generalization, it might help CS/FL (Chinese as a Second/Foreign Language) learners quickly acquire Chinese words, phrases and sentences. In the history of teaching CS/FL, antithesis figure of speech has been used for quite a long time in pedagogy, for it can facilitate learners’ constructing and enlarging semantic networks of vocabulary by mastering the internal structures of words, phrases and sentences. For the purpose of evaluating the learning effects of Chinese antithesis figure of speech, we conducted an experiment to investigate CSL learners’ production of antithesis couplets. Results show that through the treatment of teaching antithesis couplets as templates by asking the participants to imitate them, their writings had the following characteristics: (1) fourcharacter couplets such as feng ge shuli, die wu huaqian ‘Bees sing songs among trees and butterflies dance around flowers’, (2) not strict antithesis/duel couplets, (3) ke construction, and (4) errors in antithesis couplets. After the teaching treatment, in the learners’ compositions often appeared antithesis, parallel and quasi-parallel sentences. Based on the results, we argue that the production of antithesis couplets consists of perception, construction and output stages in information processing procedure. We also suggest that in order to increase CS/FL learners’ accuracy in using words, complexity in making sentences, and fluency and native-likeness in forming texts, teachers can raise their awareness of analyzing the meanings and forms of Chinese words by providing practices in imitation of antithesis couplets.

  1. 基於新加坡小學華文教材語料庫的語音負擔分析  羅慶銘
    Phonological Functional Load in Singapore Primary School Textbooks: A Corpus-based Analysis by Qing-Ming Luo
  • 摘要
    語音負擔是指某個語音單位(聲母、韻母、聲調、音節)在語音傳遞過程所承載的信息量,也叫音位功能負擔。教材語音負擔作為重要的語音量化指標,對漢語語音習得、語音要素的等級劃分以及語音教學內容的編排都會產生直接或間接的影響。本文利用新加坡小學華文教材語料庫結合數理統計原理對教材中包括聲母、韻母、聲調等語音構成要素進行語音負擔測算。結果顯示,漢語聲母、韻母和聲調的語音負擔不是平均的,總體上韻母的語音負擔最重,其次是聲母,聲調的語音負擔最輕。但從平均負擔量看,聲調的語音負擔卻最重;聲、韻、調內部子系統的語音負擔也存在較大差異。造成漢語語音負擔差異的原因主要是各語音構成要素在使用頻率上存在差異,頻率與語音負擔成正比。但頻率不是改變語音負擔的唯一因素,語音系統內部配置,語音單位元之間的對立或者互補關係也會直接影響二元對立的語音負擔。這些初步結論對漢語語音習得研究和教學研究都具有參考價值。

Phonological functional load refers to the amount of information carried by a phonetic unit (consonants, vowels, tones and syllables) in a phonological transmission process and is also called phoneme functional load. As an important phonological quantification indicator, textbook phonological load has a direct or indirect impact on Chinese phonetic acquisition, classification of phonetic elements, and the content arrangement of phonetics teaching. Applying statistical principles to the Singapore primary school Chinese textbook corpus, this paper seeks to compute the phonological load of the textbook phonetic constituent elements, including consonants, vowels, and tones. Results indicate that the phonological load of Chinese consonants, vowels and tones is uneven. Vowels in general have the highest phonological load, followed by consonants, with tones having the lowest phonological load. However, an examination from the point of view of average load reveals that tones command the highest phonological load, with a greater difference in the phonological load of the internal subsystems of consonants, vowels and tones. The main cause for the difference in Chinese phonological load lies in a difference in the usage frequency of various phonetic constituent elements, with frequency being proportional to phonological load. However, frequency is not the sole factor that changes phonological load. The internal configuration of phonetic systems and the opposing or complimentary relationship between phonetic units would also directly affect the phonological load of binary oppositions. These preliminary conclusions are of reference value to the research and pedagogy of phonetic acquisition of Chinese as a second language.

  1. 以觀音靈籤作為華語閱讀教材及其教學設計  胡文菊、汪娟
    Developing a Reading Material Based on Kuan Yin Temple Oracle for Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language by Wen-Chu Hu and Chuan Wang
  • 摘要
    古代漢語蘊藏著豐富的中華文化寶藏,然而文言漢語常被一般人視為是死亡的語言,尤其在以華語為第二語言的教學領域裡,教材多以白話文為大宗,文言常常未得到太多的關注。對於此種現象學者們也提出了不同的看法。文言的遣詞用字洗鍊優美,適當的學習可以提升學習者的修辭知識、成語知識,更能帶領學習者一窺中華文化的精髓,領略漢語語言文化之美。我們選擇觀音靈籤作為中高級對外漢語閱讀教材的理由如下:第一,籤詩帶有謎樣的色彩,許多外籍人士對東方的求籤文化感到好奇,如果將這股好奇心結合華語學習,將是一莫大的學習助力。第二,觀音靈籤雖屬於文言漢語較為深奧難懂,但其中含藏了許多現代漢語常用的成語或習慣語,若熟悉這些詞語,學習者的語文程度將提升至另一個更高的階段。第三,一些研究顯示,學習者對於故事性的教材最感興趣。在每一首觀音靈籤的籤題背後都有一個歷史故事典故,因此學習起來饒富趣味,也能加深學習者的記憶與文化知識。此文首先探討文言漢語的教學策略,以及文言在華語文教學中應有的地位與重要性。其次本文分享如何將觀音靈籤改編成生活化華語學習教材,文中陳述此教材編輯時所依循的原則以及教材特色,並介紹此教材的內容編排,包括研究場域龍山寺簡介、入寺廟參拜的規矩、求籤的程序、籤詩體例與籤題背景故事等。文末更依據教學設計原理對此教材進行教學方法與教學活動的設計,希冀此研究能在華語文言教學與文化教學領域提供些許貢獻。

When people are perplexed with some questions in their life, one of the Asian/Chinese ways of approaching the problem is to seek guidance from Gods or Goddesses through temple divination. The oracle/poetry that one gets from the temple is the God/Goddess’ answer to his/her question. In Taiwan, Long Shan Temple is one of the must-visit attractions for many foreigners and Kuan Yin Oracle Board is used there. Temple divination is a mysterious ritual for many foreigners. Temple oracle therefore, we think, might become interesting and authentic reading material for Chinese language learners. Kuan Yin Temple Oracle is widely used in Chinese temples in different countries and it has a hundred poems written in classical Chinese. In this research, we firstly study the origin, the function and the structure of Kuan Yin Temple Oracle. We also review the literature on strategies of teaching classical text with the discussion of its role in teaching Chinese as a foreign language. We then list our guiding principles and methods of developing the Kuan Yin Oracle reading material tailored for foreign learners of Chinese. Finally, we try to design the teaching strategies for this special reading material, including several task-based learning activities. Suggestions for future research and practice are also provided.

  1. 探討《新版實用視聽華語》與「華測八千詞」選用詞語之異同  石伊婷、陳浩然、李維潔、楊惠媚
    A Study of the Vocabulary Items Used in Practical “Audio-Visual Chinese” and “TOCFL Chinese 8,000 Vocabulary” by Francess Yi-Ting Shih, Howard Hao-Jan Chen, Wei-Jie Lee, and Hui-Mei Yang
  • 摘要
    臺灣國家華語測驗推動工作委員會考試報告指出,無論報考華語文能力測驗(TOCFL)哪個級別的考生,多以《新版實用視聽華語》(以下簡稱《視華》)系列為主要教材。此表示教材內容影響著學生的學習狀況及TOCFL考試上的表現。有鑒於《視華》所涵蓋的詞語與TOCFL考試不同級別所需具備的詞語在過去並未經詳細探討,本研究藉由比較及分析兩者之間的詞語異同處得到了以下幾項發現:(1)兩者之間有3,693筆相同的詞語,有2,085筆《視華》詞語不在TOCFL詞表中,而有3,776筆TOCFL詞語未納入於《視華》中。(2)兩詞表的收詞原則不同,各具其選詞特色。(3)《視華》中具有較多臺灣特色的詞語。(4)TOCFL詞表「兒化」詞的數量高於《視華》。本研究進一步自《視華》未納入TOCFL詞表的2,085詞中,取得314筆高頻詞作為對TOCFL的建議詞表,也從TOCFL未收錄至《視華》的3,776詞中選取前三級的289筆詞作為對《視華》的建議詞語。期望本研究結果及建議可提供華語學習者、教師和教材與測驗編寫人員以及考試單位作為參考。

According to the report of The Steering Committee for the Test Of Proficiency-Huayu (SC-TOP), most of CSL (Chinese as a Second Language) learners in Taiwan taking The Test of Chinese as a Foreign Language (TOCFL) use "Practical Audio-Visual Chinese" series as the primary learning material. Thus, the content and vocabulary in the series have a clear impact on CSL learners’ learning and on their test performance. However, very few studies focused on comparing the vocabulary used in "Practical Audio-Visual Chinese" (PAVC wordlist) with "Chinese 8,000 Vocabulary" (TOCFL wordlist). In this study, we compared the vocabulary in the PAVC series of textbooks and TOCFL wordlist and found: (1) 3,693 words are shared by both PAVC and TOCFL wordlists, while 2,085 words in PAVC are not covered in TOCFL list. And TOCFL has 3,776 words that are not found in PAVC. (2) The criteria for selecting words in PAVC wordlist are different from those in TOCFL wordlist. (3) The PAVC contains more vocabulary items related to Taiwan features than TOCFL wordlist does. (4) The TOCFL wordlist contains a larger number of -er words than the PAVC does. Based on the results of comparison, we suggested that 314 high-frequency words in the PAVC could be included in TOCFL wordlist, and 289 words from the TOCFL wordlist could be incorporated into the PAVC. The findings of this study can serve as a useful reference for Chinese learners, teachers, textbook compilers, and language test agencies.

  1. Effect of Home Language on the Chinese Lexical Ability of 6-year-old Singaporean Children by Puah Lynn Dee and Tan Chee Lay
    家庭言語環境對新加坡6歲華族兒童詞彙能力的影響  潘霖妮、陳志銳
  • 摘要
    新加坡以英語為主要家庭用語的華族家庭有逐年上升的趨勢。為了更好地瞭解新加坡兒童的華語能力和語言使用情況,新加坡華文教研中心展開為期兩年的研究─《新加坡華族兒童語言環境及語言使用調查》。研究項取樣自新加坡學前中心,共有1,233名6歲兒童的父母參與問卷調查,當中372名兒童參加了圖片描述測試和認字測試。本文旨在探討家庭語言環境對新加坡6歲華族兒童詞彙能力的影響。本文選取了11名來自雙薪家庭、除幼稚園老師外無其他照顧者的兒童,並將它們分為三組─以華語為主要家庭用語、以華語及英語為主要家庭用語和以英語為主要家庭用語。兒童圖片描述測試的視頻或音頻,以CHAT模式轉寫,並以CLAN系統分析其詞頻、詞種、和平均句長。研究結果顯示,三組來自不同語言背景的11名新加坡華族6歲兒童的詞彙能力,在詞頻上沒有顯著區別,但是家庭用語對詞種和平均句長有顯著影響,功能詞的缺失,使得他們難以將所習得的詞彙組詞成句。

With English language dominating social use in Singapore, there is a rising trend of English being the dominant home language in local Chinese families. To better understand children’s Chinese language ability and their language exposure, the Singapore Centre for Chinese Language conducted a 2-year research project entitled "An Investigation of Singaporean Chinese Preschoolers’ Language Use & Exposure". A total of 1,233 parents of Kindergarten 2 children (aged 6) participated in a survey, and 372 children of these 1,233 parents subsequently participated in a picture description and a character recognition test. This paper aims to examine the effect of home language on the Chinese lexical ability of 6-year-old Singaporean Chinese children. Eleven children from dual income family were selected and divided into three home language groups: CHL (Chinese as main home language), CEHL (Chinese and English as main home languages) and EHL (English as main home language). Video- and audio-recordings were transcribed by using CHAT transcription. Word types, word tokens and mean length of utterance were analyzed by CLAN program. Two-way ANOVA analyses with home language and gender as independent variables were performed separately on word types, word tokens and mean length of utterance. The results reveal that lexical ability of the 11 6-year-old Chinese children has no significant difference across three home language groups in terms of the lexicon acquired. However, home language has significant effect on word type and mean length of utterance. The lack of function words causes them problems in putting words together.

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