《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十四期(2017.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. A Typological Analysis of Chinese Heritage Language Programs at Universities in North America and Oceania by Karen Huang
    北美紐澳大學華裔中文傳承教育類型分析  黃克文
  • 摘要
    With a growing number of Chinese immigrants around the world, more and more heritage language learners want to learn Chinese at universities in their settling country. It has been widely accepted that the heritage language learners should receive separate curricula because their needs are different from the Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners. However, programs do not always have enough resources to offer a separate instruction for the heritage language learners. There is a need to bridge the gap between theory and practice. This study examines 39 Chinese programs from the top 150 universities in Modern languages in North America and Oceania. Based on the data, a typology of the Chinese heritage language programs is presented. Further analyses illustrate that 77% of the investigated top universities offer heritage courses. However, there seems to be a regional difference between North America and Oceania. Furthermore, the complexity of heritage programs is correlated to Asian/Chinese demographics in the universities or the regions. The university structure and student demographics play an important role in program curricula. Based on these findings, further recommendations are proposed to assist a program to develop its heritage language track in a realistic manner.

隨著海外華人移民增加,愈來愈多華裔學生希望在當地大學學習中文。由於華裔學生學習需求與其他學生不同,分開設置華裔班獲得教育界廣泛認可,然而理想與實際之間差距不小,並非所有中文項目都有能力另外開班。本研究調查美加紐澳共三十九個、在現代外語領域世界排名前一百五十名的中文項目,根據其華裔教學課程做類型學分析。結果發現其中77%設有華裔班,其設置與否、課程完整度與地區及亞裔或華裔的比例相關,華裔班的開設顯然受大學學制與學生族群影響。本研究進而對期望發展其華裔課程的中文系,斟酌實際並提出建議。

  1. 落地生根的胡姬花:新加坡華裔語言形態與身份認同解讀  吳英成、馮耀華
    One People, One Nation, One Singapore: Language Use and Identity among Chinese Singaporeans by Yeng Seng Goh, Yeow Wah Fong
  • 摘要
    新加坡華人從祖籍地中國移居到「星洲」,積極融入居留地生活,成家立業,繁衍後代,入籍成為新加坡公民。經過新加坡建國五十年來積極推動的種族融合政策,不僅潛移默化地建構出有別於中國祖籍地的華人身份認同,新加坡華族社會語言生態也發生重大變化。不同世代、不同家庭常用語、不同教育背景的華裔,對華族語言文化認同以及對華人族群認同出現顯著差異。在全球化時代中,祖籍地中國人與世界各地的華人,應該尊重與接受華裔經過時空變遷後產生的異質事實。

Migrating from homeland in China to Singapore, Singapore Chinese put down roots, have a family and eventually become citizens in Singapore. The implementation of the racial integration policy in the past fifty years has not only forged a distinctive Chinese Singaporean identity, but also brought a major change in the sociolinguistic landscape. There is thus a significant variation in attitudes towards Chinese language and culture and ethnic Chinese identity across generational cohorts, due to different home language use and education background. It is essential, in the age of globalisation, for mainland Chinese and Chinese overseas to recognise and respect the fact that Chinese overseas has evolved a distinctive identity over time and space.

  1. 泰國華裔青年之華語語音習得與偏誤分析  梁月美、劉惠美
    The Mandarin Pronunciation Acquisition and Error Analysis in Thai Chinese Youth by Kamolwan Noppadolsathan and Huei-Mei Liu

摘要
本研究目的在於分析泰國華裔學生在華語語音習得中的偏誤情形,包括習得聲母、聲調發音的偏誤比率和型態,了解泰籍華生在學習華語的語音困難點分布情形及產生偏誤的可能原因。本研究以在台灣學習華語之泰國華裔學生(簡稱泰籍華生)為對象,採單字詞的念讀方式,蒐集泰籍華生的華語聲母、聲調之語音樣本,並讓華語母語者以耳聽知覺的評音方式,判斷個別聲母、聲調的正確率,並加以排序分析其偏誤類型。研究結果顯示,在聲母方面,泰籍華生最常把送氣塞擦音發成擦音,例如ch/tʂ^h/發成sh/ʂ/、q/tɕ^h/發成x/ɕ/,舌尖後濁擦音r/ʐ/發成舌尖中邊音l/l/,舌尖後音發成舌尖前音,zh/tʂ/發成z/ts/,sh/ʂ/發音成s/s/,或者舌面音發成舌尖音,如x/ɕ/發成s/s/。在聲調方面,泰籍華生多數能準確發出華語的四個聲調,惟在陽平發音成去聲的偏誤率較高。期許透過本研究之發音偏誤類型分析、偏誤排序及對泰籍華生之語音教學建議,讓華語教師教授泰籍華生時,能提升其華語語音教學之成效。

The main purposes of this study are to analyze the error patterns and problems of Mandarin initial consonants and tones for Thai Chinese students, and to examine the possible effects Chinese background can impose on Thai Chinese students in the area of Mandarin pronunciation. The sample participants tested in this study are Thai Chinese students who study Mandarin in Taiwan. Single word reading method is used to collect the data of pronunciation of Mandarin initial consonants and tones from Thai Chinese students. Perceptual judgment technique is used to determine the correct rate of each Mandarin initials and tones and their error patterns. In addition, this study ranks the error type frequency on different Mandarin initials 0and tones, showing a more scientific frequency ranking on Thai Chinese pronunciation. The results show that in terms of consonant pronunciations, the main error patterns for Thai Chinese speakers are their pronunciation of affricative sound to be fricative sound, such as ch/tʂ^h/is pronounced as sh/ʂ/, q/tɕ^h/is pronounced as x/ɕ/, Also, their pronunciation of retroflex sound to pronounce as alveolar sound, such as r/ʐ/ is pronounced as l/l/; retroflex sound to pronounce as alveolar sound, such as zh/tʂ/ is pronounced as z/ts/, sh/ʂ/is pronounced as s/s/; or alveolo-palatal sound to be pronounced as alveolar sound, such as x/ɕ/to pronounced as s/s/. In terms of tones, most Thai Chinese students can accurately pronounce the four Mandarin tones; however there is the slightly higher rate of error in the second tone to be pronounced as fourth tone. Based on this error type analysis and error type ranking, it is hoped that Mandarin teachers will be able to improve the effectiveness of Chinese phonetics teaching when interacting with Thai students with Chinese background.

  1. Home Language Environment, Socioeconomic Status and Chinese Oral Competence in Singaporean Chinese Children Aged 6 by Lynn Dee Puah and Chee Lay Tan
    新加坡六歲華族兒童的家庭語言環境、社會經濟地位與華語口語能力  潘霖妮、陳志銳
  • 摘要
    In Singapore, the use of English at home was generally more prevalent among Chinese community with higher socioeconomic status (SES). In this paper, we aim to investigate the current home language environment of Singapore Chinese children, and to find out the relationships between home language, SES, and Chinese oral competence in Singaporean Chinese children. 1233 parents of Singapore Chinese children aged 6 from 73 preschools participated in the questionnaire survey, and 377 Singapore Chinese children aged 6 participated in the language proficiency test. The results showed that Singapore Chinese children aged 6 used more English at home. SES had direct influence on home language exposure. Home language exposure had direct influence on Chinese oral competence. SES had no direct influence on Chinese oral competence. The results suggest that the promotion of Chinese as the main home language is important and imminent. More investigations on home language and school language are needed for policy making.

在新加坡,社會經濟地位較高的華族社群,在家庭中使用英語的現象較為普遍。本研究旨在調查目前新加坡華族兒童的家庭語言環境,以及探討新加坡華族兒童家庭語言環境、社會經濟地位和口語能力之間的關係。本研究的參與者包括來自73所學前中心的6歲華族兒童及他們的家長。其中,1233名家長參與了問卷調查,377名兒童參加了口語能力測試。研究發現,新加坡6歲華族兒童在家多使用英語;社會經濟地位對家庭語言接觸具有預測力;家庭語言接觸對口語能力具有預測力。由此,我們認為鼓勵新加坡華族家庭在家中使用華語是重要且迫切的。為了更好地制定政策,日後需要更多關於家庭語言及學校語言的調查。

  1. 華語道歉策略的差別效應研究  張玉芳
    A Study on The Single and Joint Effects of Apology Component by Yuh-Fang Chang
  • 摘要
    現有探討言談行為「道歉」的相關研究不少,但多數學者聚焦於特定語言表達道歉的策略種類,或比較探討不同語言間表達道歉的策略差異。雖然這部分的研究發現,能幫助我們了解跨文化之間表達道歉策略的差異,但要清楚了解「道歉」言談行為,除了需要知道「表達道歉者」使用什麼策略道歉之外,也應探究每一類的道歉策略、或不同的道歉策略組合,所傳達的道歉誠意,對於「接受道歉者」而言,是否有差異。然而,現有探討道歉語的相關研究,多數是收集表達資料(production data),分析道歉策略的使用差異;或收集認知資料(perception data)針對道歉情境冒犯的嚴重程度、需要道歉的必要性、被冒犯者會接受道歉的可能性等認知差異做比較,都是從「表達道歉者」的角度探討「道歉」的言談行為。少有學者從「被冒犯者」(亦即:接受道歉者)的角度,探討每一類的道歉策略或不同的道歉策略組合,所傳達的道歉誠意,對於「接受道歉者」而言,是否有差異。本研究從「被冒犯者」的角度,探討每一類的道歉策略、不同道歉策略組合以及同一種道歉策略但不同的內容等,它們所傳達的道歉誠意的是否有別,並研究其認知是否有性別的差異。

People apologize differently. The apology strategies that previous studies classified include: (1) IFID expressing regret, (2) IFID requesting forgiveness, (3) intensifier, (4) repair, (5) explanation, (6) lack of intent, (7) self-blame, (8) admission of fact, (9) promise of forbearance, (10) acknowledgement, (11) concern, (12) minimizing, (13) alerter, (14) justification. Most of the research literature on the speech act of apology collected production data to examine the speech act of apology of a specific culture or compared the speech act of apology across cultural groups. The issue concerning whether and how different types of apology strategy work differently in changing the perception of transgressors has attracted relatively little attention from researchers. This study is intended to contribute to the body of research on pragmatics by examining the single and joint effects of apology components on the victim’s perception of transgressors.

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