Table of Contents
- A Typological Analysis of Chinese Heritage Language Programs at Universities in North America and Oceania by Karen Huang
With a growing number of Chinese immigrants around the world, more and more heritage language learners want to learn Chinese at universities in their settling country. It has been widely accepted that the heritage language learners should receive separate curricula because their needs are different from the Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners. However, programs do not always have enough resources to offer a separate instruction for the heritage language learners. There is a need to bridge the gap between theory and practice. This study examines 39 Chinese programs from the top 150 universities in Modern languages in North America and Oceania. Based on the data, a typology of the Chinese heritage language programs is presented. Further analyses illustrate that 77% of the investigated top universities offer heritage courses. However, there seems to be a regional difference between North America and Oceania. Furthermore, the complexity of heritage programs is correlated to Asian/Chinese demographics in the universities or the regions. The university structure and student demographics play an important role in program curricula. Based on these findings, further recommendations are proposed to assist a program to develop its heritage language track in a realistic manner.
- 落地生根的胡姬花：新加坡華裔語言形態與身份認同解讀 吳英成、馮耀華
One People, One Nation, One Singapore: Language Use and Identity among Chinese Singaporeans by Yeng Seng Goh, Yeow Wah Fong
Migrating from homeland in China to Singapore, Singapore Chinese put down roots, have a family and eventually become citizens in Singapore. The implementation of the racial integration policy in the past fifty years has not only forged a distinctive Chinese Singaporean identity, but also brought a major change in the sociolinguistic landscape. There is thus a significant variation in attitudes towards Chinese language and culture and ethnic Chinese identity across generational cohorts, due to different home language use and education background. It is essential, in the age of globalisation, for mainland Chinese and Chinese overseas to recognise and respect the fact that Chinese overseas has evolved a distinctive identity over time and space.
- 泰國華裔青年之華語語音習得與偏誤分析 梁月美、劉惠美
The Mandarin Pronunciation Acquisition and Error Analysis in Thai Chinese Youth by Kamolwan Noppadolsathan and Huei-Mei Liu
The main purposes of this study are to analyze the error patterns and problems of Mandarin initial consonants and tones for Thai Chinese students, and to examine the possible effects Chinese background can impose on Thai Chinese students in the area of Mandarin pronunciation. The sample participants tested in this study are Thai Chinese students who study Mandarin in Taiwan. Single word reading method is used to collect the data of pronunciation of Mandarin initial consonants and tones from Thai Chinese students. Perceptual judgment technique is used to determine the correct rate of each Mandarin initials and tones and their error patterns. In addition, this study ranks the error type frequency on different Mandarin initials 0and tones, showing a more scientific frequency ranking on Thai Chinese pronunciation. The results show that in terms of consonant pronunciations, the main error patterns for Thai Chinese speakers are their pronunciation of affricative sound to be fricative sound, such as ch/tʂ^h/is pronounced as sh/ʂ/, q/tɕ^h/is pronounced as x/ɕ/, Also, their pronunciation of retroflex sound to pronounce as alveolar sound, such as r/ʐ/ is pronounced as l/l/; retroflex sound to pronounce as alveolar sound, such as zh/tʂ/ is pronounced as z/ts/, sh/ʂ/is pronounced as s/s/; or alveolo-palatal sound to be pronounced as alveolar sound, such as x/ɕ/to pronounced as s/s/. In terms of tones, most Thai Chinese students can accurately pronounce the four Mandarin tones; however there is the slightly higher rate of error in the second tone to be pronounced as fourth tone. Based on this error type analysis and error type ranking, it is hoped that Mandarin teachers will be able to improve the effectiveness of Chinese phonetics teaching when interacting with Thai students with Chinese background.
- Home Language Environment, Socioeconomic Status and Chinese Oral Competence in Singaporean Chinese Children Aged 6 by Lynn Dee Puah and Chee Lay Tan
In Singapore, the use of English at home was generally more prevalent among Chinese community with higher socioeconomic status (SES). In this paper, we aim to investigate the current home language environment of Singapore Chinese children, and to find out the relationships between home language, SES, and Chinese oral competence in Singaporean Chinese children. 1233 parents of Singapore Chinese children aged 6 from 73 preschools participated in the questionnaire survey, and 377 Singapore Chinese children aged 6 participated in the language proficiency test. The results showed that Singapore Chinese children aged 6 used more English at home. SES had direct influence on home language exposure. Home language exposure had direct influence on Chinese oral competence. SES had no direct influence on Chinese oral competence. The results suggest that the promotion of Chinese as the main home language is important and imminent. More investigations on home language and school language are needed for policy making.
- 華語道歉策略的差別效應研究 張玉芳
A Study on The Single and Joint Effects of Apology Component by Yuh-Fang Chang
現有探討言談行為「道歉」的相關研究不少，但多數學者聚焦於特定語言表達道歉的策略種類，或比較探討不同語言間表達道歉的策略差異。雖然這部分的研究發現，能幫助我們了解跨文化之間表達道歉策略的差異，但要清楚了解「道歉」言談行為，除了需要知道「表達道歉者」使用什麼策略道歉之外，也應探究每一類的道歉策略、或不同的道歉策略組合，所傳達的道歉誠意，對於「接受道歉者」而言，是否有差異。然而，現有探討道歉語的相關研究，多數是收集表達資料（production data），分析道歉策略的使用差異；或收集認知資料（perception data）針對道歉情境冒犯的嚴重程度、需要道歉的必要性、被冒犯者會接受道歉的可能性等認知差異做比較，都是從「表達道歉者」的角度探討「道歉」的言談行為。少有學者從「被冒犯者」（亦即：接受道歉者）的角度，探討每一類的道歉策略或不同的道歉策略組合，所傳達的道歉誠意，對於「接受道歉者」而言，是否有差異。本研究從「被冒犯者」的角度，探討每一類的道歉策略、不同道歉策略組合以及同一種道歉策略但不同的內容等，它們所傳達的道歉誠意的是否有別，並研究其認知是否有性別的差異。
People apologize differently. The apology strategies that previous studies classified include: (1) IFID expressing regret, (2) IFID requesting forgiveness, (3) intensifier, (4) repair, (5) explanation, (6) lack of intent, (7) self-blame, (8) admission of fact, (9) promise of forbearance, (10) acknowledgement, (11) concern, (12) minimizing, (13) alerter, (14) justification. Most of the research literature on the speech act of apology collected production data to examine the speech act of apology of a specific culture or compared the speech act of apology across cultural groups. The issue concerning whether and how different types of apology strategy work differently in changing the perception of transgressors has attracted relatively little attention from researchers. This study is intended to contribute to the body of research on pragmatics by examining the single and joint effects of apology components on the victim’s perception of transgressors.