《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十三期(2016.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 二語學習者與母語者穿戴類動詞的心理詞彙網絡之組織研究  錢旭菁
    A comparison study on the mental lexicon of native Chinese speakers and English learners of Chinese by Xujing Qian
  • 摘要
    人腦中的詞語是一個有組織的系統,這個系統一般被稱為心理詞彙。由一個詞聯想到另一個詞,反映了心理詞彙中詞語之間的聯繫。聯想實驗是一個研究人腦中心理詞彙的組織方式的常用方法。本文以詞語聯想的方法,考察母語為英語的漢語初級、中級、高級二語學習者心理詞彙中「穿、戴、脫、披」這四個動詞的組織方式與漢語母語者的異同。通過分析聯想詞和刺激詞之間的各種關係,本研究發現,二語學習者心理詞彙中的詞語網絡比母語者的稀疏,表現出他們詞語網絡中的詞語比漢語母語者少,詞與詞之間的聯繫不如漢語母語者的緊密。二語學習者心理詞彙中穿戴類四個動詞之間尚未建立任何語義方面的聯繫,這些動詞的組合聯繫的強度也比母語者弱。此外,二語學習者心理詞彙中的非語義聯繫比母語者多。二語學習者心理詞彙中意義無關的同音詞以及聲符相近的詞聯繫在一起不利於他們對這些詞的識別和提取。從詞義方面來說,二語者的心理詞彙中只涉及這四個動詞「穿脫衣物」這一最基本的義項,而漢語母語者心理詞彙包括這幾個動詞的多個義項。根據上述研究結果,本文從教學內容和教學順序兩方面對穿戴類動詞的教學提出了具體的建議。

The lexicon in human’s mind is an organized system which is called Mental Lexicon. Word association which reflects the relations of words is a common research method to study the organization of Mental Lexicon. Based on word association, we compare the organization of four action verbs related to Wearing in the Mental Lexicon between elementary to higher-level English speaking learners of Chinese and native Chinese. The four verbs were chuan (to wear clothes), dai (to wear glasses, hat, gloves, caps, etc.), tuo (to take off clothes, shoes, gloves, etc.) and pi (to drape over). Analyzing the relations between the response and the stimulus, we found that the word net connections of the learners were much sparse than those of the natives. The number of words in the net of learners was less than that of natives while their non-semantic relations were more than those of the natives. Concerning the meanings of the four verbs, the Mental Lexicon of learners only indicates the meaning of "put on/take off clothes", while the Mental Lexicon of natives Chinese shows several senses of these verbs. Suggestions of teaching contents and teaching sequences of these four verbs are proposed in this writing.

  1. 文類教學法在中文二語實用文教學的運用  邱佳琪
    Application of genre pedagogy in Chinese second language teaching and learning of practical writing by Cha Kie Hiew
  • 摘要
    在常用文類的教學中,二語學生需要學習如何理解並回應各種溝通管道的信息,以滿足生活中的社交需求,達到語言的溝通目標。實用文是一種常用的交換信息文類,因此是二語教學的重要文類。二語學習者除了掌握文類結構的概念,更需要對於不同情境下適用的內容及語言形式有所了解,以便準確、恰當地溝通或分享信息,而這些學習需求與交際目的及語境等因素是息息相關的。因此本文從系統功能語言學(Halliday 1994)的角度分析20 位中文第二語言學習者所寫的建議書,發現其中表現較弱的部分包括文步、語旨、語式、詞彙、情態、連接、指稱等等。此外也進一步通過「閱讀促進寫作」(Reading to Learn, Learning to Write)文類教學法進行教學設計,以針對中文二語的實用文寫作弱項,提出具體的建議與改善方法。「閱讀促進寫作」教學法結合系統功能語言學與支架教學的概念,形成從閱讀到寫作的完整教學設計。一方面,系統功能語言學提供了關於語言、文類、語境的系統性知識,有助於學習者掌握不同文類的結構與語言特點並應用於寫作;另一方面,此教學法在近年來經過不斷的實踐與完善,已證實能有效地提升學生的語文能力。相較於一般常見從內容、結構、語言等層面的寫作分析,本研究從系統功能語言學的角度,進一步細化寫作評量的標準與層面,從學習者寫作的真實語料分析其弱項,並採取具體的教學策略,使教學設計能有針對性地符合學生的學習需求。

Practical text or practical writing is the genre which carries messages to exchange information between sender and receiver. It’s important to learn how to interpret various information received in daily life and to respond appropriately for the social interaction purpose. And second language learners not only need to understand the concept of different genre, but also need to possess the knowledge about context and linguistic features of various texts to communicate well with others. Therefore this paper analyzes the practical writing of 20 CSL (Chinese as a second language) students and concludes their performance is generally weak especially in terms of stages, tenor, mode, ideation, appraisal, conjunction, and reference. Based on the analysis of CSL students’ authentic materials, this paper further applies the 「Reading to Learn, Learning to Write」pedagogy to design the teaching of practical writing with the concepts of genre, context, and language. Developed from the theory of Systemic Functional Linguistic, Reading to Learn pedagogy has been recognized as one of the most effective and well-designed genre study from theoretical and pedagogical aspects. The significance of this paper is to understand the performance and learning needs of CSL students, and to develop effective teaching design which can help to enhance the teaching and learning of Chinese practical writing.

  1. CEFR與ACTFL初級閱讀能力描述對應研究:以「兒童華語文能力測驗」為媒介  趙家璧、藍珮君、陳柏熹
    Aligning ACTFL and CEFR proficiency levels: utilizing children’s Chinese competency certification by Chia-Pi Chao, Pei-Jiun Lan, and Po-Hsi Chen
  • 摘要
    本研究採用國家華語測驗推動工作委員會參照CEFR 初級使用者(A 等)能力指標所研發的兒童華語文閱讀測驗為媒介,透過書籤法(Bookmark Method)標準設定程序,連結歐洲共同語文參考架構(CEFR)與美國外語教學協會能力指標(ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines)的初級閱讀能力,期能分析 CEFR 與ACTFL 初級閱讀能力描述的對應關係。本研究邀集11 位專家採用書籤法進行兩回合的標準設定研究,使用兒童華語文閱讀測驗題目,對ACTFL 初級與中級的能力描述進行標準設定。研究結果顯示:1. 低於CEFR A1 以下的Pre-A1 級約與ACTFL 初級初等、初級中等相當,而A1 級與初級高等、中級初等相當,至於A2 級則與中級中等、中級高等相當;2. 在標準設定結果的效度驗證方面,本研究提出程序性效度與內部效度兩項資料;3. 在定義初級閱讀能力時,CEFR 與ACTFL 有數項共同特徵和共通的學習進程。本研究結果有助於兒童測驗使用者透過CEFR 與ACTFL 的語言能力架構理解測驗結果,同時也提供華語文教學上有關CEFR 與ACTFL 對應的客觀依據。

ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines (ACTFL) and Common European Framework of Reference for Language (CEFR) are two major language proficiency guidelines adopted internationally in the fields of language teaching and assessment. This study aims to link the framework of CEFR and ACTFL by utilizing the Children’s Chinese Competency Certification (CCCC). 11 experts have participated in a two-round standard setting procedure applying the Bookmark Method. The CCCC Reading is a standardized test designed based on the CEFR proficiency descriptions for Basic User (A1-A2). The standard setting procedure was performed on the CCCC Reading focus on ACTFL novice and intermediate levels. The research suggests the following results. First, the pre-A1 reading proficiency which is lower than CEFR A1 is equivalent to the novice low and novice mid levels in ACTFL. The CEFR A1 reading proficiency is equivalent to ACTFL novice high and intermediate low levels and the CEFR A2 is equivalent to ACTFL intermediate mid and intermediate high levels. Second, the evidence of procedural validity and internal validity are provided to support the validation of the standard setting. Finally, in describing reading proficiency and learning progress in the beginner levels, the process of standard setting has revealed similar characteristics in both the CEFR and the ACTFL framework. The results of this study allow the test takers of CCCC to interpret test results with the language proficiency framework which they are familiar with. It can also provide language learners and educators with a more objective correspondence between CEFR and ACTFL.

  1. 華語教材評估指標初探:二語習得視角  李郁錦、 陳振宇
    A preliminary investigation of the criteria for evaluating Chinese teaching materials: a second language acquisition perspective by Yu-Chin Li and Jenn-Yeu Chen
  • 摘要
    本文從二語習得理論的視角出發,根據教材編撰的相關理論,提出一套華語教材研析的指標,期能做為華語教學設計或研析的參考。有關二語習得的主要因素和要件,雖學界仍無定論,但因其無論在外語教學或教材設計都有著至關重要的影響力。因此本文搜羅國內外與二語習得及教材編撰相關的書籍及論文共117 本/篇做為擬定指標的基礎。本研究首先彙整國內、外二語習得及教材設計的觀點,做綜合性的討論。其次,從中萃取出一套教材評析模式,此模式分:「語言」、「認知」、「教學」與「學習者」等四個層面,有17 項指標、80 項細目的教材評析工具之原型。此評析工具,除了可檢視二語習得相關理論的應用之外,也可以做為教材設計的參考指標,有助於將二語理論實際應用於教學及教材設計上。

Primarily based on theoretical views of second language acquisition (SLA), this article aims to design a prototype of indicators for Chinese teaching materials analysis from a pedagogical perspective. To this end, first of all, we briefly discussed what SLA theories can contribute to the teaching of Chinese as a second language. Secondly, we compiled and discussed the most relevant SLA and Materials Development in Language Teaching bibliography in the last few decades. At each point, based on the discussed theories, we attempted to extract indicators for the purpose of analyzing Chinese teaching materials. Eventually, we designed a prototype tool with 4 different levels: (1) Language, (2) Cognition, (3) Teaching Approach, and (4) Students which include 17 indicators, a total of 80 items. It could be used as a reference for analyzing materials as well as for designing them.

  1. A multilevel analysis of the linguistic features affecting Chinese text readability by Jia-Fei Hong, Yao-Ting Sung, Ho-Chiang Tseng, Kuo-En Chang, and Ju-Ling Chen
    影響中文文本閱讀難易度的多層次語言特徵分析  洪嘉馡、宋曜廷、曾厚強、 張國恩、陳茹玲
  • 摘要
    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the characteristics of text comprehension. We use an approach that includes 32 linguistic features from four main levels (word, semantic, syntactic, and cohesive) that relate to Chinese text readability. The aim is to overcome the restrictions that resulted from adopting only surface linguistic features in investigating text readability in the past. In the present study, the research materials include 386 texts from Chinese textbooks for Taiwan elementary school students in six grades. The texts are reasonably assumed to increase in complexity of readability from grade 1 to grade 6. The readability of each of the 32 features is derived from the statistical trend analysis with respect to the grades. It is hoped that the results of this study can be of significant use in teaching Chinese reading in Chinese as a second language.

本文研究文本理解的特性,論述採用詞彙類、語意類、句法類和文章凝聚性四個主要層次的32 個語言特徵,以探討中文文本閱讀難易度,克服前人僅採用一些表面語言特徵的限制。研究的實驗材料取自臺灣三個版本的小學一年級到六年級的課本共386 篇文本,從低年級到高年級的課文當作是文本從簡易到相對繁難的安排,這32 個語言特性的閱讀難易度以統計學的趨向分析依文本在年級的高低分布計算出來。過去華語為二語的文本分析大都採用學生偏誤的語料,本研究則以正規的文本為依據,做出中文文本閱讀難易度,希望研究成果能對華語為二語教學有所貢獻。

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