《臺灣華語教學研究》總第八期(2014.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 對外漢語學習詞典的語用信息研究  卜源、蘇新春
    The Study of Pragmatic Information in Chinese Learning Dictionaries by Yuan Bu, Xin-Chun Su
  • 摘要
    語用學在最近幾十年發展快速,使得語用學原理在詞典編纂中的應用逐漸被詞典學家們所重視。外國學生也普遍期望能擁有一部實用的學習詞典,來告訴他們詞語使用的對象、場合、情景,蘊含的冒犯、禮貌程度,傳達的感情,使用的意圖,產生的效果等有用的語用知識。學習詞典如何吸收語用學成果,提供哪些語用信息及怎樣展示它們,從而積極引導學習者得體有效地理解和使用漢語,是當前對外漢語學習詞典編撰的一個重要議題。本文從語用信息的價值出發,介紹了漢語學習詞典中語用信息的具體內容及呈現方式,對比分析了三部對外漢語學習詞典,指出了它們在語用信息提供方面的一些優缺點,並對未來漢語學習詞典編纂中的語用信息構建問題提出了一些建議,希望對未來學習詞典的編纂帶來啓發。

Pragmatics, as a branch of linguistics, has been developing rapidly in recent decades. More and more lexicographers have done studies in pragmatics application to lexicography. Meanwhile, most of the foreign students who learn Chinese hope to own a useful dictionary, which can tell them adequate pragmatic knowledge, including the object factors, occasion, situation, context, offence information, politeness degree, emotion meaning, aim and effect of using a word. Therefore, as a reference book for learners, it is very important for a dictionary to provide pragmatic information more efficiently. This paper investigates and analyses the types and presentation methods of pragmatic information in Chinese learners’ dictionaries. Based on the analysis and comparison of the pragmatic information provided in three current dictionaries, suggestions are given to shed light on how to enrich and present pragmatic information in future dictionaries.

  1. 馬來西亞獨中生認知「拿」類手部動作動詞的機制-以「V+N」動賓結構為例  陳秀君、高虹
    Malaysian Chinese Independent High School Students’ Cognitive Understanding of Take “Na” Action Verbs in Chinese: Examples from “V + N” Structures by Siew-Chien Chin, Helena Hong Gao
  • 摘要
    馬來西亞的華語類似台灣的國語和新加坡的華語,都是在課堂上正規的普通話教育和課外社會中漢語多種方言的扶持下逐步發展起來的。這使得馬拉西亞的華語在很多方面更接近台灣的國語和新加坡的華語,而不是中國大陸的普通話。由於複雜的語言環境也使得馬來西亞華語使用者對有些詞彙的掌握和使用上出現了偏好,比如偏向使用某一個詞來表達一類類似的事件或一類相似的事物,而對其他同義或近義的詞卻很少使用等。根據我們的語感和觀察,發現馬來西亞的華語使用者就「拿」類手部動作動詞的應用上,存在「一物多拿」的現象。於是我們做了一項實證研究,假設「V(「拿」類手部動作動詞)+N」結構是藉由認知「拿」的機制,即建立在賓語屬性範疇化與「拿」的動作屬性之間的導向關係,以馬來西亞南部(簡稱南馬區)三所獨立中學(即以華語為教學媒介語的中學)為例,通過抽樣實證和量化數據來討論馬來西亞華語使用者「一物多拿」的現象,既而解釋華語使用者認知「拿」的機制如何啓動受事名詞及其物體知識、謂詞結構及其動作等相關的知識。

Similar to Taiwan and Singaporean Chinese, Malaysian Chinese has been developed by means of formal education at school as well as by taking Chinese dialects as a bridge to the lerning of the Chinese language, nonrmally known as Putonghua. Due to the similar complex language environments, Malaysian Chinese has become more similar to Singaporean and Taiwan Chinese than Putonghua spoken in Mainland China. Malaysian Chinese speakers are found to have a tendence in using certain lexical words more often than others. According to our experience and observation, the Malaysian Chinese speakers tend to use the verb Na "take" to describe many similar actions with different kinds of patient objects involved in the V + N structure. In this study we conducted an experiment based on our assumption that the structure of V (Na "take" action verbs) + N is a reflection of the Chinese speakers’ cognitive process of the the event structure of taking actions. That is, the semantic domains that the patient objects of the Na "take" action verb belong to are correlated with the action manners of the Na "take" actions that the verb describes. The participants of the study were from three Chinese independent high schools in the southern part of Malaysia. These schools provide secondary education in the Chinese language as the continuation of the primary education in Chinese national-type primary schools. The experiment results were analyzed and discussed to show how the Malaysian Chinese speakers had the cognitive mapping between the Na "take" action verbs and their different kinds of patient objects. Discussions were given about how the speakers’ cognitive understanding of the Na "take" actions would activate the speakers’ prior knowledge of the corresponding action verbs and the semantic knowledge of their patient objects, which altogether would build up the linguistic structure of the verbs.

  1. 華語學習者句式使用情況分析  張莉萍
    The Usage of Some Sentence Patterns by L2 Chinese Learners: A Corpus-Based Study by Li-Ping Chang
  • 摘要
    本研究藉由以任務為導向的電腦寫作考試語料來分析量化不同程度華語學習者的句式使用情況,目的是為了找出不同能力學習者的關鍵語言特徵,以作為評量時的參照指標。研究方法包括母語與二語語料庫之間的對比,以及偏誤分析(正誤用例比例)的方法,以找出學習者過度使用或少用哪些語言特徵、不同能力學習者的習得情況。對於是否為關鍵性特徵的判定則以Hawkins and Buttery(2010)對關鍵特徵的判定標準為主,以統計上的差異是否具有顯著性為依據。本文以「把字句、被字句、連字句」為例,觀察分析這些句式的使用頻率、偏誤率、次結構使用情況。這些資訊將有助於華語教學大綱的制定和教學材料的編寫,為學習、教學與評量設計提供科學的根據。

This study aims to explore the salient linguistic features of Chinese syntactic structures across the CEFR levels. It takes Ba sentences, Bei sentences, and Lian sentences as examples to examine their usage in terms of occurrence frequency, errors, and substructures produced by L2 Chinese learners. The research is based on corpus linguistics method, by comparing the sentences in a learner (L2) corpus and a native-speaker (L1) corpus. The L2 corpus which consists of more than 1.14 million Chinese words from novice proficiency to advanced learners’ texts is mainly from the computerbased writing Test of Chinese as a Foreign Language (TOCFL). The L1 corpus is the Academia Sinica balanced corpus. According to the statistical significance criterion proposed by Hawkins and Buttery (2010), these specific structures are used as the criterial features to classify different proficiency levels.

  1. 現階段香港大學生普通話「命題說話」測試項中的偏誤分析  張翼
    The Analysis of Typical Errors Committed by Hong Kong University Students in the Putonghua Speaking Test by Yi Zhang
  • 摘要
    自2001至2011年,港人的普通話水準有了普遍提升,主要體現在普通話語音方面,而內容方面,包括詞語選用及語法結構帶著濃郁的「港味」。本文以150名香港大學生所參加的普通話「命題說話」項測試的語料為依據,從詞法、句法以及語篇三個角度統計並篩選了排名前十的偏誤類型,嘗試分析港人學習普通話所產生的偏誤成因。分析表明,偏誤可能源於粵語及英語的遷移、港式書面語、本地中文教學三個方面。

Over the past ten years (2001-2011), Hong Kong people’s Putonghua proficiency, specifically their pronunciation, improved a great deal. However, their spoken Putonghua discourse, including lexical choice and grammatical structure, carried features of "Hong Kong-style". On the basis of the corpus-based data analysis of 150 Hong Kong University students who took the Putonghua speaking test, this paper discusses the top ten error types in spoken Putonghua committed by students in morphology, syntax as well as discourse. The errors and the causes are analyzed. The most common factors of the errors originate from the negative transfer of Cantonese and English, the "Hong Kong-style" Chinese, and the effect of local Chinese education.

  1. Teaching Observed but also Participatory Chinese Culture: Some Pedagogical Issues and Implications by Jason D. Hendryx
    觀察並且參與中國文化之教學:部分教學問題與啟示  韓森
  • 摘要
    中國文化教學無疑是每一個華語教師教學職責的一個重要方向。突顯出從華語發展且目前有在施行的文化是華語學生的一座附加的橋樑,以提高他們對母語為華語的人的理解,並更好地認識現在被稱為華語的一些語言上的細微差別。然而,在大部分華語課本和教材中,或非華裔學生的華語課堂上,中國文化僅僅從華人觀察到的角度來呈現,對於訪問或居住在臺灣、大陸或其他華語地區的外國人將體驗到的中國文化現況有些方向偏離。引用已經出版的作品(請參見Hodge & Louie 1998,McDonald,2011)加上筆者過去20年來斷斷續續在大陸和臺灣的生活經驗,觀察的中國文化教學可以而且應該通過參與的中國文化教學來發揚的這個論點將被提出。筆者希望藉由觀察到並且參與中國文化的教學這種情況下,華語教師和非華裔的語言學習者,能從中國文化可以呈現並學習的附加渠道中受益。

Teaching Chinese culture is certainly an essential aspect of every Chinese language teachers’ instructional responsibilities. To highlight the culture(s) from which Chinese language developed and currently operates in is an additional bridge for students of the language to enhance their understandings of the peoples who communicate primarily in Chinese. Furthermore, cultural instruction also allows students to better appreciate some of the nuances of the languages now called Chinese. However, the manner in which Chinese culture is presented in the majority of Chinese language textbooks, teaching materials, and oftentimes Chinese language classrooms for non- Chinese learners is done so only from the observed Chinese perspective. Such approaches are misaligned with the Chinese cultural realities foreigners visiting or living in Taiwan, China, or other Chinese speaking areas will experience and participate in. Drawing on published works (See Hodge and Louie 1998; McDonald 2011), then complementing them with the author’s experiences living in China and Taiwan off and on across the last 20 years, the argument will be made that teaching observed Chinese culture can and should be complimented by the teaching of participatory Chinese culture as well. It is hoped that by making such a case for the teaching of observed as well as participatory Chinese culture Chinese teachers and non-Chinese language learners can benefit from the additional avenues Chinese culture can be presented in and learned.

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