《臺灣華語教學研究》總第五期(2012.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 華語語言文化認知教學:結合概念結構進行租房活動練習  曾金金
    Language, Culture, and Cognitive Approach to TCSL: Introducing Conceptual Structure of Renting a Place to Pre-Task Activities by Chin-Chin Tseng
  • 摘要
    本文主要以事件概念架構鞏固第二語言聽說能力,搭配三種溝通模式,提供學習者針對性的練習、回饋與評估,結合形音識記與意義識記,提供實用信息並教導學習者如何使用特定句型獲取信息,並能進行有效得體的回應。本文以租房概念結構之語言與文化分析,設計模擬租房任務前活動練習,練習的部分著重在聽力及口語溝通能力的訓練,整體設計關注記憶與第二語言學習的關連。概念結構可協助第二語言學習者把短期記憶中的信息組成有意義的單位,有利於將信息轉存為長期記憶。第二語言口說能力與運動記憶相關,口說能力的培養需要相關信息呈現一定的強度和重複,未來希望透過在不同情境強化同一句型,協助學習者將短期記憶有效轉化為長期記憶。

In this paper, the framework of mental structure (Jackendoff 2007) is used for facilitating second language listening and speaking training. With three modes of communication, learners can work on activities which suit their needs and their language proficiency level. Combined with visual stimulus, audio sound play and meaningful learning materials which are organized into a mental conceptual structure. The analysis of the conceptual structure bringing language and culture information to the learners in a full picture. Learners can understand the renting event, containing what information structures, and what sentence patterns and vocabulary are required when expressing a certain concept. The overall design not only concern the listening and speaking activities, but also the information processing (both comprehension and expression) to second language learning.Conceptual structure can help second language learners gain meaningful units of information to store in their short-term memory. After reinforcement and repetition, information can be encoded in long-term memory. Second language speaking ability is related to motor memory, to be able to speak fluently, learners requires a great amount of meaningful practices. Practicing the same sentence pattern in different contexts and employing the memory method for music recital, one can memorize dialogues in a similar way.

  1. 商務華語教材詞彙研析:師培需求暨觀點研究  陳麗宇、李欣欣
    Lexical Analysis of Business Chinese Teaching Material: A Study in Teacher Trainees’ Needs and Perceptions by Li-Yu Chen and Cindy Hsin-Hsin Lee
  • 摘要
    本論文以師培生的觀點角度以及培訓需求為出發點,考察商務華語教材中的商務詞彙,分析目前商務華語教材中詞彙特性;樣本選自大陸、臺灣、香港等三個地區中近十年出版的中級程度商務華語教材,探討被列為所謂中級程度的商務詞彙內容及艱深程度。詞彙研析由師培生的觀點出發,並比對商學院學生以及大陸商務漢語考試的常用詞語表,加以確認師培生觀點的分析結果。研究結果在於明瞭職前華語教師對於商務華語詞彙的理解程度,深入分析目前商務華語教材中的難詞比重及其專業領域分佈狀況,同時探討師培生想要成為商務華語教師所需的培訓資源。最後,根據研究結果研究者提出商務華語師培教育建議,以及商務華語教材中詞彙教學之方向。由於部分難詞源自兩岸專業用語差異,本文附件亦提供了兩岸專業商務用語差異比較表,以作為未來教材編寫者參考之用。

This study takes the viewpoints and needs of the students in a teacher training course to examine the business vocabulary in business Chinese teaching materials. It analyzes the characteristics of the lexicon of some current business Chinese textbooks. The samples were the intermediate-level business Chinese textbooks published in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the past ten years. We discuss the contents and difficulty level of the vocabulary used in the so-called intermediate business Chinese courses. The vocabulary analysis takes the view of the students in a teacher-training course and compares it with the views expressed by business college students. These views are then compared with the vocabulary list of frequently-used vocabulary of the Business Chinese Test used in Mainland China. The research results facilitate our understanding of the teacher trainees’ comprehension of business vocabulary and allow us to analyze in depth the specific weight of difficulty words and the distribution of specialty fields as contained in the current business Chinese textbooks. At the same time, this paper discusses the resources needed to educate business Chinese teacher trainees. Finally, this study raises some proposals for business Chinese teacher training and directions of business Chinese instruction. As the perception of some difficult vocabulary was due to the word-usage differences between the two sides of the Strait, this paper also provides a list of variant specialty words used in Mainland China and Taiwan as a reference for future textbook compilers.

  1. 對外漢語語法教材例句存在的問題及其對策  楊德峰
    Problems of Examples in Textbooks for Teaching Chinese as a Second Language and Countermeasures to Solve Them by De-Feng Yang

摘要
本文通過對1980年以來出版的20部對外漢語非學歷教育語法教材中的例句進行考察,發現例句存在缺乏語境、不規範、不合語法或語用、過時、脫離學習者的生活、詞語過難或過偏等諸多問題,並提出了一些解決這些問題的對策。

This paper analyzes the examples in the twenty grammar textbooks that have been published since the 1980s. Many problems in the examples are listed here. They include lack of context, deviation from language standards, ungrammatical, outdated contents, void of the learner’s daily life, words too hard, and other difficulties. This paper gives some countermeasures to solve the problems.

  1. 表加強否定語氣副詞「並」、「又」的語篇銜接功能  靳瑋
    A Study on the Textual Cohesive Functions of Bing and You under the Context of Emphasizing the Negative Meaning by Wei Chin
  • 摘要
    本文使用修辭結構理論考察漢語平衡語料庫中的「並」、「又」,對否定句中的「並」、「又」進行超句分析,考察後發現否定句中的「並」多出現於轉折修辭結構中,帶出前景信息,信息值高,否定句中的「又」多體現修辭結構中的背景關係,帶出後景信息,信息值低。接著,我們以認知語言學中的理想化認知模型考察「並」、「又」帶出信息的情理值,考察發現「並」帶出的信息情理值低,多是未知信息;「又」帶出的信息、情理值高,多為已知信息。

This paper first uses the Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) to study the negative sentences with you or bing which are taken from the Sinica Corpus. Bing type of negative sentences usually occurs in the rhetorical structure of transition, which brings out forwarded information of much value. You type of negative sentences usually occurs in the rhetorical structure of background, which brings out background information of less value. Next, an analysis of reason level in negative sentences with you and bing from the perspective of Idealized Cognitive Model (ICM) shows that bing takes low reason level and carries new information while you takes high reason level and carries given information.

  1. 法語編寫的華語教材在地化:以法語區中學生初級華語時貌教學為例  黃世宜
    Localization of Chinese Textbooks in French: Teaching Aspect Markers to French-Speaking Secondary-School Students as an Example by Terrier Shih-Yi Huang
  • 摘要
    本文透過瑞士法語區一線教師的在地經驗,體認華語課進入歐洲主流中學體制,須與歐洲語言學科競爭並居於弱勢的事實。為探討原因,筆者以初級華語時貌標記「了」、「過」、「著」為例,比較分析現有當地法語編寫的華語教材;並參酌分析當地歐語教學政策以及歐語教材,歸納歐語教學的優勢在於:1.教學語法術語已統一固定。2.以動詞變化為教學共同主軸,由易到難的學習規律循序進行。因此,建議一線教師面對多重歐語背景之學習者進行初級華語教學時,必須建立穩定而一致的教學語法體系,方有助開展華語教材教法之在地化。

In some areas of Europe, such as French-speaking parts of Switzerland, Chinese language programs are not yet fully established in secondary schools because of competitive disadvantages against European language instructions. To investigate the background of the situation, this paper focuses on the teaching of elementary Chinese aspect markers ‘le’, ‘guò’, and ‘zhe’ for French speakers by a comparative analysis of Chinese teaching materials in French, local European language teaching policy in Switzerland, and European language materials in general. Advantages of European language instructions include: (1) Grammatical terms are mostly regular and formulaic. (2) Conjugation of verbal forms is the guiding principle of instructional design. Thus, it is recommended that local Chinese teachers for multiple European language speakers establish a stable and consistent teaching grammar system in favor of localization of Chinese teaching materials and instructional methods.

  1. 現代漢語「雖然」與「儘管」的語用差異  黃苕冠
    The Pragmatic Difference between “Suiran” and “Jinguan” in Modern Mandarin Chinese by Tiao-Guan Huang
  • 摘要
    在現代漢語中,「雖然」與「儘管」多半被認為是二個完全同義的虛詞。本文藉助對「雖然」和「儘管」語法化的研究結果,論證「雖然」和「儘管」在語用上的細微差異。完整的「雖然」與「儘管」句式包含主要子句與從屬子句,主要子句為說寫人所要聲言之事實或結論,從屬子句即含有「雖然」或「儘管」之子句,為主要子句所表達之命題的背景信息。當說寫人對背景信息、存有預設,而該預設與主要子句的命題對立或相反時,為了令兩個互相對立之事實的推論關係明確化,說寫人用「雖然」將預設加以背景化表達出來。當說寫人認為某一客觀事實為條件,且應作為所要聲言之事實的重要背景信息,則用「儘管」將該客觀事實條件化與背景化。

This paper follows Chao’s (1999) semantic analysis of old, 老 lăo, 舊jiù and employs a cognitive approach to broaden the prior analysis and be even more precise by considering the context of the English usage of old. It further highlights the notion of subjectification in the analysis of old, good old, 老 lăo②, and 舊jiù③ to see the ”good”ness in the domain of TIME and SPACE. Authentic data were drawn from the corpus data of MICASE (Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English), and VDN Data (聯合知識庫) to provide a coherent contrastive cognitive analysis. Moreover, translated correspondents of old, 老 lăo, 舊jiù in three popular language textbooks were also used in the pedagogical evaluation. Preliminary findings suggest that there is a lack of equivalence in the English-Chinese translated correspondents in the language textbooks, which provides a scaffolding understanding process toward old, 老 lăo, 舊jiù, and further sheds light on better implementation of pedagogical sequences.

  1. Revisiting old老舊: A Cognitive Analysis and its Pedagogical Implementation by Enya Jin-Huei Dai
    再談old老舊:認知分析及其教學實踐  戴金惠
  • 摘要
    在現代漢語中,「雖然」與「儘管」多半被認為是二個完全同義的虛詞。本文藉助對「雖然」和「儘管」語法化的研究結果,論證「雖然」和「儘管」在語用上的細微差異。完整的「雖然」與「儘管」句式包含主要子句與從屬子句,主要子句為說寫人所要聲言之事實或結論,從屬子句即含有「雖然」或「儘管」之子句,為主要子句所表達之命題的背景信息。當說寫人對背景信息、存有預設,而該預設與主要子句的命題對立或相反時,為了令兩個互相對立之事實的推論關係明確化,說寫人用「雖然」將預設加以背景化表達出來。當說寫人認為某一客觀事實為條件,且應作為所要聲言之事實的重要背景信息,則用「儘管」將該客觀事實條件化與背景化。

Both ”suiran” and ”jinguan” are commonly considered synonymous functions words in modem Mandarin Chinese. The researcher of this pragmatics study argues that ”suiran” and ”jinguan” are slightly different from each other as a result of grammaticalization. The subordinate clause beginning with ”suiran” or ”jinguan” expresses background information, while the main clause expresses the fact or conclusion the language user intends to assert. When the speaker or writer takes a presumption of the background information in mind and the presumption is contrary to the proposition of the main clause, ”suiran” is used to set the presumption as background information and express the contrast between the presumption and conclusion by inference. If the speaker or writer considers an objective fact as a condition and important background information of an assertion, he/she uses ”jinguan” to indicate that fact.

建立一個對話

你的電子郵件位址並不會被公開。 必要欄位標記為 *