《臺灣華語教學研究》總第九期(2014.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 兩岸華語初級階段教材之漢字用字量及互通性初探  信世昌、周昭廷
    Why Yes in Business Chinese Can Become No? by Shih-Chang Hsin, Chao-Ting Chou
  • 摘要
    許多外籍華語學習者都曾分別在兩岸學過華語,或分別使用過兩岸的教材,但兩岸教材中的詞語差異必然造成華語學習者的銜接困難,在字彙方面的差異不只是繁簡字體的問題,也牽涉到兩岸教材中的用字量及互相涵蓋率的問題。本研究即以從零起點開始到完成初級階段(約一學年)的前兩本教材為限,以字彙編列問題為研究核心。我們挑選了台灣及中國大陸較普及的兩套系列型的初級華語教材,即台灣的《遠東生活華語》的第I及第II冊(後者包含AB上下兩冊)、及大陸的《新實用漢語課本》的第一冊及第二冊,我們分析了兩套教材的所有課文,統計各本教材用了多少個不同的單字、以及各單字出現的次數及頻率。基於統計結果,兩岸的初級階段教材在字集方面有明顯的差異,在兩岸分別學習華語的外國學生,其所學得的漢字頗有差別。若以此兩套教材為例,先在台灣學過的外國學生轉赴大陸唸中級華語時,會有24%的初級漢字從未學過;反之,先在大陸學過的外國學生轉來台灣唸中級華語時,更有高達近半數的初級漢字(49%)未曾學過。此外,兩岸不同的社會用語習慣亦影響了教材的漢字差異。其銜接與彌補的問題值得進一步關注。

Many L2 learners of Chinese are found to learn Chinese in both Taiwan and China. An obvious question arises in this context is the cross-strait interchangeability of vocabularies introduced in different textbooks. For instance, one of the difficulties lies in the traditional-simplified distinction of Chinese characters. More importantly, the cross-strait mismatch of the vocabulary quantity in different textbooks is another issue that is likely to cause a transitional challenge for these learners to go from one place to another through their learning process. The major research question of this paper is the quantity and the cross-strait interchangeability of the vocabularies in the textbooks used for the first two semesters (=one year) in beginner’s Chinese courses in both Taiwan and China. The representative textbooks used for beginners in Taiwan are Book I, Book IIA, and Book IIB of Far East Everyday Chinese. On the other hand, the counterparts in China are Book I and Book II of Practical Chinese Reader, New Edition. We carried out statistical analysis of the texts in these two textbooks, focusing on the frequency and the times of occurrences of the vocabularies. The results of the statistical analyses show significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the sets of characters introduced in these textbooks in Taiwan and Mainland China. Students who start out to study Chinese in Taiwan would face 24% unknown characters introduced in Practical Chinese Reader, New Edition when they transfer to Mainland China at the same level. By contrast, those who start out in Mainland China would find unfamiliar 49% of the characters in Far East Everyday Chinese when transferring to Taiwan. In addition, the social-linguistic disparity between Taiwan and Mainland China influences the selection of characters/vocabularies in textbooks. Thus, further research is needed to bridge the cross-strait qualitative/quantitative gap between the characters/vocabularies introduced in textbooks for beginner’s level.

  1. 為什麼商務華語中的Yes可能是No?  陳麗宇、鄭錦全
    Malaysian Chinese Independent High School Students’ Cognitive Understanding of Take “Na” Action Verbs in Chinese: Examples from “V + N” Structures by Li-Yu Chen, Chin-Chuan Cheng
  • 摘要
    在漢語區工作的外國商務人員,常會追問為什麼在商務英漢的交流或正式談判裡,Yes在會中或會後可能變成No。這種可能被解釋為欺騙的語言行為,其實可以有多項語用解釋。本文從語言的對話結構說明漢語的「是」並不完全對應英語的Yes,漢語的「是」在回答英語的問題時,是表示同意對方的說法,並不是回應英語的問話內容的肯定或否定。「是」還可以用來表達「我聽著,請繼續說」暫時自己不做決定的立場、遲疑的態度和「雖然」的轉折。「是」在有些場合也是用來彌補面子問題的回應詞,給予對方下臺的機會,並不是同意對方的說法。還有,過去十幾年,台灣出現沒有實質內容的「是」和「對」作為發語詞,有時還聽到說話人各處穿插這兩個詞語,用來彌補語流的空白。本文論述這類語言生活中的問題,並且從語用的觀點提出商務華語詞語教學建言。

Foreign business professionals working in Chinese-speaking regions often asked why in business English-Chinese conversations or formal negotiations, "yes" could turn into "no" right in the meeting or afterwards. Such a seemingly cheating language behavior in fact may have various explanations. This study explains in terms of dialog structure that the Chinese word "shi" does not correspond completely to English "yes". Chinese "shi" in answering English questions expresses the speaker’s agreement to what is said in the question and not to the positive or negative statement of the question sentence. "Shi" can also be used to indicate "I am listening, please go on" while undecided, hesitation, or concession. It is also used on some occasions as a response to save the face of the interlocutor and does not mean to agree with the person addressed. Moreover, in the past decade or so in Taiwan people used "shi" and "dui" as a non-sensical word in their conversation. They could be heard as speakers dotted the discourse with these words to fill the gap in the speech stream. This study discusses these pragmatic problems in language use. Some suggestions are raised for vocabulary teaching in business Chinese.

  1. 華語否則類短語的篇章與人際功能探究  王萸芳、蔡碧華、許訓銘、胡凱閔
    A Corpus-based Study of the Textual and Interpersonal Functions of Mandarin Chinese (Yao)Buran, Yaobu, and Fouze by Yu-Fang Wang, Pi-Hua Tsai, Hsun-Ming Hsu, Kai-Ming Hu
  • 摘要
    華語「不然」和「否則」在古代漢語都有「不是如此,不是這樣」的意思,後來發展出「如果不是這樣」的意思,表示前面敍述了一種情況,反過來的另一種情況就不是這樣了。「不然」也有一些變體,如「要不」、「要不然」和「再不然」。本研究旨在探究「不然」、「要不然」和「要不」以及「否則」出現於日常會話及電視政論兩種不同的口語語體的特色。研究採用Halliday(1994)語言的三個元功能為分析架構,即“表義/概念功能”,“人際功能”和“語篇功能”。研究發現,「不然」及其變體(特別是「要不然」)出現在日常會話比電視政論多,然「否則」卻較多出現於電視政論。此外,本研究也顯示:從「不然」、「要不然」和「要不」在篇章與人際層面的功能來看,因其常出現在條件因果句或假設句,其意義具有主觀性,甚至交互主觀性(Traugott and Dasher 2002),故較常出現於不正式的口語會話中。「不然」已從「不是如此」的意義漸漸延伸至有高度主觀性,如表推論,與交互主觀性,如表建議的功能。另外,「(要)不然」與「要不」在功能上雖有許多相似處,但此二詞在語法化的後半部階段有不同的發展,故二者亦有不同處。為了掌握這不同領域中的語義語用現象,我們借助Fauconnier and Turner(2002)所提出的融合理論(Blending Theory)來解釋「不然」與「否則」所銜接的句子其背後的心理空間現象,進而說明其語法化現象的過程,並以前人的研究及本研究結果為基礎,考察口語中的「(要)不然」、「要不」和「否則」中語法化的程度。研究發現,與「不然」、「要不然」和「要不」相較,「否則」主觀性強,交互主觀性卻不如它們強。

This study discusses the textual and pragmatic (interpersonal) functions of the near-synonyms (yao) buran, yaobu and fouze, which parallel to English ‘otherwise’, or ‘or’, connecting two clauses to express ‘or else; if not, then’. In particular, drawing on Halliday’s (1994) three-level model, viz. ideational (propositional), textual and interpersonal functions, the study looks into their uses in two different text types: daily casual conversations and TV political panel discussions. The data show that (yao) buran and yaobu tend to occur in casual conversations, while fouze, in political panel discussions. In addition, yaobu is used differently from buran in some ways, though both of them might come from yaoburan, which is composed of yao and buran. As a whole, this study suggests that (yao) buran and fouze, which originally had a referential meaning ‘not so’, are subjective in the sense that they involve the speaker’s assessment and evaluation of a proposition. However, the meanings of (yao) buran and yaobu are more subjective than that of fouze and they are even more intersubjective, which involves the speaker’s attention to the addressee as a participant in the speech event (Traugott and Dasher 2002). Finally, we account for the differences between fouze and buran by using Fauconnier and Turner’s Mental Space Blending Theory (2002).

  1. 漢語教學中數目詞的探究  江惜美
    Chinese Numerals in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language by Hsi-Mei Chiang
  • 摘要
    本文旨在探究數目字在漢語中的使用情形,以及出現的形態、應如何教學,以供華語教學者參考。漢字經歷代的演變,字形不一、讀音各異,在數目字上亦復如是。筆者在實地觀課時,發現教數目字,除了基本的一~十的寫法,其實還必須另外就「二、兩」、「一、壹」和「万、萬」等進行辨析,讓外籍生了解實際上應如何應用,因此,就漢語中數目字進行爬梳。首先,解釋各個數目字的不同寫法、讀音與其分類,然後,就教學上分辨這些字詞出現的情況,最後,說明漢語教學中教數目字可使用的方法,希望能透過對數目字形、音、義的了解,以及如何教學,提供華語教學者參考。我國有許多成語,與數目字息息相關,更具有特殊的文化意涵,本文將舉例說明,幫助華語教學者不只能對字義加以明確的解釋,更能進一步傳達數目字所代表的深意。數目字在今日生活中,通常與量詞結合,形成特定的用法,應用廣泛,值得華語教學者深入探究。

This paper aims to explore the application of the variation of numerals in Chinese and how these different forms of numerical words should be taught in Chinese as a second language. Chinese characters have evolved and developed over time from their earliest known pictographic forms, and to the versions used today. It holds true for Chinese characters for the numbers 1 to 10. More specifically, it is found that while teaching Chinese numbers corresponding to one to ten, teachers need to verify how "èr二 and liăng兩", "yī一 and yī壹", and "wàn万 and wàn萬" are used in context to help learners use them appropriately. In this paper, the numeral Chinese characters in terms of its forms and pronunciations followed by their frequencies of occurrences in teaching. Finally, methods are suggested for teachers while teaching these various written forms of Chinese numbers. It is hoped that thought the analyzing of the different characters, pronunciations, and meanings of Chinese numbers, teachers can have a better understanding regarding Chinese numeral characters. More importantly, many Chinese idioms are closely related to numbers which often connote special cultural meanings. This article will illustrate some of these number idioms as examples so that teachers will explain not only the meaning of words literally, but also the connotation of these numeral characters in idioms. Today, Chinese numeral characters, often in combination with measure words, carry special meaning and are used widely in various disciplines. There is a need for Chinese educators and researchers to explore further.

  1. 法律華語教學之定位、定性和定向分析 陳寅清
    Teaching Legal Chinese for Second Language Learners: Analysis of Orientation, Quality and Direction by Yin-Ching Chen
  • 摘要
    「法律華語」為「專業華語」的分支學科之一,性質屬於「特定目的之外語教學」(Languages for Specific Purposes),兼跨二語教學與法律專業之雙重領域,在學術研究與教學應用上皆尚有極大的發展空間。本文先就英美針對國際學生設計的法律英語課程及相關研究進行考察,再以國際專業外語教學的理論為基礎,針對海峽兩岸出版的法律華語教科書,以及商務華語教科書中涉及法律概念、法律實務,與法律文化的教材進行分析,以期呈顯法律華語教學的學科性質、定位和特徵,進而提供未來專業法律華語的教學及研究參考。

Legal Chinese is one of the courses of Chinese for Specific Purposes, which involves the two disciplines of teaching Chinese as a second language and legal education. Compared to legal English studies, the field of teaching legal Chinese still has much more to be explored. This paper first looks into relevant studies and theories of teaching legal English for international students; then based on the theories of teaching foreign language for specific purposes, the paper discusses the course materials of legal Chinese, including legal Chinese textbooks, as well as chapters involves legal knowledge in business Chinese textbooks. By clarifying the nature and characteristics of the emerging field of legal Chinese teaching, this pilot study hopes to provide useful references for future research and teaching of legal Chinese for second language learners.

    1. Self-repair Practices in a Chinese as a Second Language Classroom by Xiao-Fei Tang
      漢語作為第二語言課堂的話輪自我修復實踐 唐曉菲
  • 摘要
    話輪修補在語言教學中的地位至關重要。基於會話分析理論,對話輪修補進行深入探討,有助於第二語言習得與教學法的進一步發展。儘管相關語言學研究通過分析北京或台灣普通話會話材料以解決話輪修補的問題,但甚少側重漢語作為第二語言學習者在漢語課堂會話中的自我修補機制。同時相關研究僅注重區分話輪修補的具體方法,並未詳細討論每種話輪修補機制的發啟與結果。因此本文旨在研究漢語課堂會話中二語學習者自我修補機制的實際現象,以期激勵漢語教師在實際教學中對二語學習者提供更為有效的幫助。本文採用會話分析的傳統方法,調查了兩種自我修補機制(即自我發啟自我修補與他人發啟自我修補)並驗證了相應的運用策略。本研究數據來自武漢大學公共語料庫,錄音時長共計147分鐘,涉及四名漢語教師與兩組班級間的課堂會話。本研究結果表明,除他人發啟修補機制外,上述兩種自我修補機制均出現在會話數據中,此外教師通過重複之前的提問來強調或間接指出學生話輪中的癥結所在。該結果證明,會話分析的方法適用於漢語作為第二語言課堂師生會話的研究。漢語課堂會話中表現出的自我修補的不同方式與對英語日常會話分析的以往研究結果亦大致相同,但仍存在自我特徵。從教學法意義言之,會話分析可以幫助漢語教師透過觀察學習者自我修補機制的運用,瞭解學習者的漢語掌握及運用能力。

The organization of repair plays the most significant role in language instruction. Insight into repair, informed by Conversation Analysis (CA), contributes to the development of second-language acquisition (SLA) and pedagogy. While a number of Chinese linguists have worked on the issue of repair with the Beijing and Taiwan Mandarin Chinese conversation data (e.g., Chui 1996; Tao 1995; Yang 2009), attention is rarely focused on Chinese as a second language (CSL) learners’ self-repair and the repair devices applied in Chinese institutional talk. Also, the initiation and the outcome of each repair were not properly discussed, as these studies only analyzed the classifications of detailed repair methods. Therefore, this study aims to look into the details of L2 learners’ self-repair devices in Mandarin Chinese classrooms, in order to inspire CSL teachers to reach out to L2 learners more effectively and successfully in an authentic teaching context. To do this, I investigated the two types of self-repair (i.e., self-initiated self-repair and other-initiated self-repair) and identified the appropriate repair practices in Chinese conversation. The analysis was based on 147-minutes of audio involving institutional conversation between four teachers and two CSL classes, drawn from a corpus recorded at Wuhan University, China. The results indicated two types of self-repair while the absence of other-initiation methods were noted in the data. Instead, the repetition of the original question was utilized by CSL teachers in order to emphasize and indirectly target the trouble source of the students’ turns. Therefore, I concluded that although the CA-informed repair mechanism is highly applicable to Chinese conversations, some particular features of self-repair in the CSL classroom cannot be ignored.

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