《臺灣華語教學研究》總第四期(2012.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 以提升跨文化溝通能力為目標之寓言學習模式探究 朱我芯
    A Study of Teaching Allegory to Enhance Cross-Cultural Communication Competence by Wo-Hsin Chu
  • 摘要
    中國寓言反映了華人文化的思想特徵,本文因而以之發展為提升跨文化溝通能力的語言學習內容。為發展有效提升跨文化溝通能力的寓言學習模式,本文以理論分析法剖析跨文化溝通能力的各種元素與寓言學習要點,作為推論基礎;並以德懷術研究法,蒐集且分析專家與學習者的異同觀點,確認學習模式之構成要項。針對跨文化導向的寓言學習,本文提出了理解、體驗、綜觀的認知歷程理念,並據此為學習模式的篇章內容、課堂活動、作業任務等三大構面,發展出融合跨文化溝通能力元素的各分項要點。在篇章內容方面,應表現華人重要文化思想,並以經典成語出處、詼諧幽默、貼近學生生活經驗為優先考量,避免長篇或哲理深奧。課堂活動方面,除了利用視覺圖像理解故事之外,主要透過小組討論,使學生融入故事角色與情境、開掘並應用寓意、對比母語文化與華人文化。作業任務方面,可模擬不同對象與場合進行說故事錄音、模擬生活情境應用寓意與成語、與不同國籍同學合作寓言創作演出、續寫或改寫寓言。如此學習模式,以臺灣師範大學國際華語與文化學系大二國際學生為對象,進行了實證教學與成效施測,結果發現,達成理想指標的學生比例達71.88%,顯見本文發展之寓言學習模式,確實有助於提升二語學生的跨文化溝通能力。

Classical Chinese allegories strongly reflect the essential characteristics of Chinese culture; consequently, this study built a Chinese allegory learning module for the purpose of enhancing CSL/CFL students’ cross-cultural communication (CCC) competence. This study utilized the theoretical analysis method as a foundation from which to infer and analyze the various elements of CCC competence and the principles of teaching allegories. As well, the Delphi technique research method was utilized in collecting and analyzing the viewpoints of language teaching experts and language learners, subsequently developing this learning module’s three constructs. With regards to these three constituents, which are allegory selection, classroom activities and assignments, this study employed a cognitive procedure of sequencing Perception, Experience and Synthesis, blended with essential elements of CCC competence, in developing all components for the three constructs. For allegory selection, works which exemplified the ideology of Chinese thought, contained classical idioms were the preferred material. As pertaining to classroom activities, in addition to utilizing visual imagery to understand the stories, students were led to uncover and apply the implicit meanings and contrast their native culture with that of Chinese people. Assignments included in-character storytelling recordings, simulations of daily-life applications of the implied meanings and idioms. This learning module was evaluated empirically through actual teaching of students of varying nationalities from the Department of Chinese Language and Culture Program for International Students at National Taiwan Normal University; when analyzed for efficacy, attained target CCC competency, clearly demonstrating this learning module as quite conducive to enhancing CSL/CFL students’ CCC competence.

  1. 任務條件和寫作形式對漢語二語寫作質量和數量的影響  袁芳遠
    Impacts of Task Conditions and Writing Modes on L2 Chinese Writing by Fang-Yuan Yuan
  • 摘要
    本研究以認知理論關於注意力分配對第二語言輸出影響假說為理論框架,調查三種任務條件和兩種寫作形式對漢語作為第二語言輸出在語言流利度、準確度、複雜度方面的影響。四十二名母語為英語的美國大學生參加了本項研究,分為對照組、提綱組和語言形式組,分別在兩個課時內完成一篇敘述文和一篇論說文的寫作任務。所得語料使用涵蓋語言流利度、準確度、複雜度等七項指標進行切割、統計、分析。統計結果表明,提綱組使用了較流利的語言,語言形式組使用了較複雜的語言;敘述文的準確度高於論說文,論說文的複雜度高於敘述文。也即是說,不同任務條件和寫作形式對漢語二語學習寫作的質量與數量均有影響,儘管在具體方面影響程度不同。

By following the theoretical framework of human’s limited processing capacity, this study examines how task conditions and writing modes influence the output of Chinese learners as a second language (L2) in the areas of fluency, complexity and accuracy. The participants were forty-two L2 Chinese learners at a North American university who were divided into three groups: control group, outline group, and sentence pattern group. The participants completed two writing tasks: narration and argumentation under one of the three task conditions. The output of the performance was measured in seven constructs in the areas of fluency, accuracy and complexity. The statistical results reveal that the outline group performed better in fluency while the sentence pattern group achieved higher scores in complexity. The participants wrote more accurately in the narrative writing but less sophisticatedly than in the argumentation writing. The results are discussed against previous studies using the information processing theory.

  1. 語言教師在課堂活動中對語法及語用的處理:口語課課堂觀察研究  李兆麟
    Language Teachers’ Treatments of Grammar and Pragmatics in Classroom Activities: An Observational Study of CSL Speaking Classes by Siu-Lun Lee
  • 摘要
    在語言教學界,已逐漸形成了一個共識,強調語言學習的最終目標不是得到語言知識,或者只是單純掌握標準的語音、規範的詞彙和語法形式,而是能夠自由運用這種語言交流資訊,表達思想,完成社會生活中的各種交際任務(李曉琪、章欣2010),以期達到“用中學”、“做中學”和“體驗中學”的教學理念(趙金銘2008)。本文以粵語二語教學為一個個案討論語法和語用的關係,也探索語言教師的語言觀如何影響課堂教學活動的設計。筆者在香港的粵語教室以觀察者身分觀察課堂活動。觀察者把教學重點及詳細資料以筆記形式記下,每節課觀察完成後,觀察者把觀察資料謄寫及整理,然後與被觀察者進行面談把課堂設計建構出來。本文從課堂活動討論在語言教學中,語法和語用配合的重要性。

In the language teaching field, there is a common belief that the purpose of language teaching and learning is not only acquiring linguistic knowledge. Teachers and learners are aiming at the ability to use the target language to communicate and express in real life environment (Li & Zhang 2010). Language teachers are looking for methods to achieve the concept of ”learning while using” and ”experience learning” (Zhao 2008). This paper uses Cantonese as a second language as a case study to discuss the relationship between grammatical correctness and pragmatic appropriateness. This paper also discusses how teachers’ beliefs affect their classroom teaching activities. The author acts as a silent observer in Cantonese classrooms in Hong Kong to observe classroom activities after observing the classroom activities, interviews are held to triangulate the result. This paper uses the classroom observation data to discuss the important links between syntactic rules and pragmatic language use.

  1. Topic Prominence and Its Pedagogical Implications by Chao Li
    漢語韻律教學:以第二語言學習者為主的肢體細胞增強方法  李朝
  • 摘要
    本論文的主要觀點是,有些漢語結構表面上不怎麼相關,實際上卻統一於話題突出之下。同時,漢英兩種語言在這些結構是否合乎語法方面表現出的差異,至少可以部分歸因於漢語是話題突出型語言而英語不是這一事實。漢語的話題突出對於中文教學來說,至少在下列三個方面有著重要意義:(一)教師有必要儘早向學生介紹“話題-述題”結構;(二)教材有必要系統地介紹“話題”、“話題-述題”和“話題突出”這些概念;(三)在考察學生漢語水準時,需要把話題突出的特徵考慮進去。

This paper shows that although some Chinese constructions may look disparate from each other at first glance, they are actually united by the fact that Chinese is a topic-prominent language. It argues that the fact that Chinese is a topic-prominent language and English is not is an important factor that contributes to the contrast in grammaticality between the Chinese constructions and their English counterparts. The importance of topic prominence in Chinese has at least three pedagogical implications. That is, in the teaching and learning of Chinese, it is important (i) to explain to students the topic-comment structure at the earliest appropriate point, (ii) to mention and systematically discuss the notions of ”topic,” ”topic-comment,” and ”topic prominence” in the textbook, and (iii) to take into consideration the topic-prominent features when assessing students’ proficiency in Chinese.

  1. Teaching Mandarin Prosody: A Somatically-Enhanced Approach for Second Language Learners by Felicia Zhang
    漢語韻律教學:以第二語言學習者為主的肢體細胞增強方法  張箴
  • 摘要
    本文報告使用主動學習技術教導在澳大利亞大學學習漢語的外國人的實證研究。主動學習技巧引用於稱為肢體細胞增強法研究出來的技巧。這些技巧包括哼聲,跟著語言節奏拍手,利用運動和手勢來加強對節奏的感知。本研究採用量性和質性方法分析其研究結果。結果表明,通過聲學分析發現實驗班的學生說漢語時聲音範圍比他們說英文時候的寬很多。這些學生上了30個小時的課以後,他們的口語考試結果被9個以漢語為母語的人評佑。評估的結果是實驗班學生的漢語比對照班學生的漢語好。此外,從實驗班學生的訪談資料發現,使用主動學習技巧能夠促使他們建立記憶策略,更增強了他們的記憶力。

This paper reports on an empirical study on the use of active learning techniques, the learning of Mandarin Chinese in a regional university in Australia. The active learning techniques are techniques derived from an active language learning approach known as the ‘Somatically-enhanced Approach’ to language learning. These included humming, clapping to rhythms of the language, using movement and gestures to enhance the perception of rhythmic patterns in a language. This empirical study was evaluated using a mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Results showed that through acoustic analysis, students’ developed a wider voice range when speaking Mandarin than when they speak English. With a wider voice range, students taught using this approach were perceived to have better pronunciation after 30 hours of instruction by nine native speakers of Mandarin judges. Furthermore, interview data from these students suggest that active learning techniques used in this approach enabled them to develop better memory strategies for learning as well.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第三期(2011.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 臺灣華語教師之教學環境及滿意度調查:十年來之變化發展分析  信世昌、李希奇、方淑華、李郡庭、林姵君
    A Survey on the Teaching Environment and Satisfaction for L2 Chinese Teachers in Taiwan: A Developmental Analysis of Changes during the First Decade of 21st Century by Shih-Chang Hsin, Hsi-Chi Lee, Shu-Hua Fang, Chun-Ting Lee, and Pei-Jun Lin
  • 摘要
    本研究為一項跨越十年的調查,旨在透過問卷調查瞭解臺灣華語教師之工作狀況及其對華語教學環境的看法及滿意度。研究針對臺灣各大學及民間華語中心教師為對象,分別在2000年、2005年及2010年進行了三次形式相同的問卷調查,其間各相隔五年,以比較其異同及變化趨向,並藉以記錄二十一世紀初期臺灣華語教師的情況。調查結果發現,華語教師之學歷及專業背景都持續成長。無論是自身待遇及工作環境等各方面,華語教師之滿意程度幾乎都以2005年為最高,明顯高於2000年的調查結果。但到了2010年卻呈現不進反退的情形,大多數項目的滿意度均呈下降趨勢。顯示近五年來華語教學環境並沒有進步,這是一個值得注意探究的議題。

This study consists of a survey that was performed over ten years, between 2000 and 2010. It aims to present concrete data regarding Chinese teachers’ views on and satisfaction with Taiwan’s Chinese teaching environment at university language training centers and private language schools. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2010. The purpose of these surveys is to compare changes in the teaching environment over time and provide a record of Taiwan’s Chinese as a second language teachers’ situation at the beginning of the 21st century.The results show that these Chinese teachers were most satisfied with the various aspect of their working environment in 2005, but their satisfaction rate showed a general decrease in 2010. This indicates that the working environment in Taiwan’s Chinese language centers has made little progress during the last 5 years. This problem is worthy of further study and is in need of improvement.

  1. 句型操練和體演文化  廖灝翔
    Drill Practice and Performed Culture Approach by Hao-Hsiang Liao
  • 摘要
    「句型操練」(Drill)和「體演文化」(Performed Culture Approach)是當前美國對外漢語教學課堂常見的兩種教學法。句型操練透過節奏和糾錯,讓學生在課堂裏得到大量的聽說練習。句型操練課「準確」和「流利」並重,前者指的是學生的語音、聲調及語法,而流利則是建立在準確的基礎上,學生不可因求快而犧牲發音,錯置聲調,語法紊亂。體演文化同樣也是「準確」和「流利」並重,但其更強調學生說話應對在中國文化中交際情況的得體性(cultural appropriateness)。換句話說,除了語法、聲調和語音外,學生必須知道在什麼場合該說什麼話、不該說什麼話,才顯得有教養、具文化,而不至擦槍走火,冒犯到中國人。本文裹,筆者將以個人的經驗,探討這兩種教學法的異同,並提供兩個教案,示範備課時的重點,希望藉此拋磚引玉,為兩種教學法建立彼此對話的可能性。

This paper investigates the similarities and differences between the Drill Approach and the Performed Culture Approach, two classroom activities widely used in the United States in the field of Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language. Under the drill approach, the teacher focuses on students’ pronunciation, intonation, tones and use of speech patterns by means of teacher-directed substitution and choral drilling. As a teacher ”conducts” their class, students receive a substantial amount of listening as well as speaking practice, and gradually develop their language fluency. While the Performed Culture Approach also emphasizes students’ accuracy of linguistic forms, it extends its focus to cultural appropriateness. Students of the Performed Culture Approach are expected not only to accurately articulate the target language but also to behave in a culturally appropriate way. In other words, cultural appropriateness is as important as language accuracy. Therefore, the goal of a teacher in a Performed Culture class is to help students develop cultural as well as linguistic situated knowledge, which can help them avoid cultural misunderstandings. It is hoped that by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, a dialogue between the two can be established.

  1. Implementing History and Memory in an Advanced Content-Based Chinese Class: What, How and Why in “Chinese History through Cinema and Cross-talk” by Enya Jin-Huei Dai
    注入歷史與記憶的新元素-高級漢語《看電影說相聲話中國近代史》  戴金惠
  • 摘要
    本文旨在探討對外漢語教學注入歷史與記憶的新元素的重要性,並以「看電影聼相聲話中國近代史」為例加以分析討論。筆者針對研究院國際專業的學生採認知教學方法選材,以真實語料突顯歷史視角的異同。打破以往教學格局,每週請學生參加二小時課堂討論與表演的課程、一小時個人化的語言操練,周五參加電影俱樂部,同時要用中文參與非同步的課堂部落格、反思部落格以英語記錄學習心得並提高語言意識。截選出中國近代史中重要的七大時段突顯兩岸的歷史與發展的對比。每個歷史時間段多佐以電影片段與不同語體的真實語料,同學們可以在Moodle獲取學習教材的內容。此外,為強調口述歷史與記憶的重要性,本課程也邀請講者用錄音的方式談「文化大革命」,隨後將課中觀課的母語人士與學生分組,討論文化大革命對母語人士家人的影響。

This paper documents the significance and relevance of history and memory in a foreign language classroom at the graduate level, taking the course ”Chinese History through Cinema and Cross-talk” as an example. The author employed a cognitive approach to design and select authentic materials targeted at graduate students majoring in international studies. Learners were asked to participate in a weekly two-hour traditional classroom discussion and performance section, an individualized timeslot for language practice, a Friday movie club or cross-talk performance, a class blog for commenting and reporting, and a reflective blog for developing and documenting cultural and learning awareness. Learning materials related to seven major Chinese historical periods were chosen in order to better showcase modern Chinese history and Chinese cultural mindsets. Each historical period was supported with media clips and authentic reading materials that students obtained from a secured learning management system. To emphasize the importance of history and memory, the class invited speakers to use audio recording to discuss the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Both native and non-native speakers of Chinese listened to these recordings. After listening to the recordings participants split into groups composed of one native and two non-native speakers, and discussed their impressions of the recordings.

  1. Implicit/Explicit Instruction Effects and Cross-linguistic Influence in the Second Language Acquisition of Chinese by Chiu-Hung Chen
    內隱/外顯教學和跨語言遷徙對華語為第二語言習得的影響  陳秋宏
  • 摘要
    本文對英語為母語的受試者對於內隱和外顯教學的差異效應進行了調查。主要的研究問題包括:一、對於學習和母語相似的語法結構,內隱教學是否對受試者比較有利?二、對於學習和母語不同的語法結構,外顯教學是否對受試者比較有利?三十六位中文水平為初級的大學生參加了本實驗。他們被隨機地分成兩個實驗組:內隱教學組(沒有語法教學)和外顯教學習組(有語法教學)。本實驗習得的目標結構為否定詞(和受試者的母語有相同的中心語/分支方向)和時間副詞(和受試者的母語有相反的中心語/分支方向)。實驗結果顯示在否定詞習得上,內隱教學組和外顯教學組並沒有顯著性差異,然而在時間副詞的習得方面,內隱教學組和外顯教學組卻有顯著性差異。

This study investigates the effects of implicit and explicit instruction on native English speaker’s acquisition of Chinese as a second language. Specifically, it addresses the following questions: 1) Will target structures similar to those in the learner’s first language (L1) be learned better with implicit instruction? 2) Will target structures different from those in the learner’s L1 be learned better with explicit instruction? Thirty-six college students who were beginner learners of Chinese participated in the experiment. They were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the implicit group (without grammar instruction) and the explicit group (with grammar instruction). The target structures taught to the students included negation markers (with the same head/branching direction as in the participants’ native language (L1)) and time adverbs (with the opposite head/branching direction of the participants’ L1). The results showed no significant differences between the two groups in the acquisition of negation markers. However, the explicit group performed significantly better than the implicit group in the acquisition of time adverbs.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第二期(2011.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 網路科技與參與學習:三種網路工具在中文教學中的作用  靳洪剛、路聖潔
    Participatory Learning and Internet Technology: The Use of Three Web Tools in TCFL by Hong-Gang Jin and Sheng-Jie Lu
  • 摘要
    本文旨在調查研究參與性網路科技在語言教學及中文教學中的作用。本文選擇了三種常用的網路工具進行比較、分析,以便瞭解各種網路工具在中文教學中所提供的參與度、互動性及其目標語使用機會。這三種網路工具分別為:(1)討論板;(2)博客;(3)Skype。21名在美國學習中文的大學生參與了本項調查。本項調查的結果對電腦網路輔助教學及中文教學領域有如下幾個方面的貢獻:(1)本項研究進一步證實參與性網路工具可以促進學習者積極參與各種互動學習;(2)本項調查還證實,如果教學設計合理,由參與性網路工具引起的參與學習可以提高學習者接觸、使用目標語的機會;(3)本項研究提出7評估網路工具的參與度及互動性的六項標準;(4)與此同時,本調查還建立了一套測量網路工具參與度及互動性的衡量系統。

This study explores Chinese language learning and instruction in a technology-rich, collaborative and participatory learning environment. Specifically, we compared and analyzed three types of participatory web tools for learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in order to understand each tool’s participatory functions, interactive features and impact on target language use. The study involved 21 U.S. undergraduate students who are learners of CFL. The three participatory web tools studied were discussion boards, blogs, and Skype.This study contributes to the field of technology-assisted language education and to the teaching CFL in four ways: (1) by providing evidence that the use of participatory web tools promotes participatory learning and authentic interaction; (2) by showing that if the pedagogical design is sound and the use of technology is appropriate, participatory learning that has been facilitated by participatory web tools increases learners’ target language use; (3) by developing six standards for evaluating the degree of participation and interaction induced by different web tools; and (4) by establishing a system to measure the degree of participation and interactivity induced by web tools used in second language instruction.

  1. 從「依」、「據」與「依據」談華語近義詞教學  吳佩晏、鄭縈
    Near Synonyms in Teaching Chinese as Second Language: A Case study to “yī”, “jù”, and “yījù” by Pei-Yen Wu and Ying Cheng
  • 摘要
    In this paper we investigate the distributional differences in semantic and syntactic patterns of Chinese near-synonyms ”依(yī)”, ”據(jù)”, and ”依據(yījù)” based on the data from ”Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Mandarin Chinese” ( Sinica Corpus ) and the sense distinction of Chinese WordNet. It has been observed that ”依(yī)”, ”據(jù)”, and ”依據(yījù)” are near-synonyms , but they have different syntactic distributions or collocations. Our analysis provides frequency-based teaching ordering, from high frequency (依) to low frequency (依據), from high sense frequency to low sense frequency, which will help Chinese second language learners to distinguish these three near-synonyms with efficiency
  1. 漢語語序的語法意義在對外漢語語法教學中的實際應用  何寶璋
    The Application of Positional Meaning in Chinese Syntax to Pedagogical Grammar of Teaching Chinese as a Second Language by Bao-Zhang He
  • 摘要
    語言學的研究成果可以服務於實際的對外漢語教學,使教學更加事半功倍,有的放矢。然而,二者往往相互脫節,使語言學研究成果被束之高閣,而對外漢語教學並沒有真正受益。本文通過實例介紹如何將「漢語語序的語法意義」這一現代漢語的規律運用到實際對外漢語教學中來。意在縮短漢語語言學研究和對外漢語教學之間的距離,使對外漢語教學受益於漢語語言學本體研究,使從事對外漢語教學的年輕教師和在校的對外漢語教學專業的同學們受益。

Teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language can benefit greatly from research results of Chinese linguistics, to make the teaching more efficiently and purposefully. However, there are gaps between the two. Consequently, the results of linguistic research are left untouched and from which the teaching Chinese as a foreign language is not gaining anything. This short paper is to demonstrate, by using example of positional meaning in Chinese syntax, how research results of Chinese linguistics can be applied to the teaching Chinese as a foreign language so as to shorten the distance between the two fields, to let the teaching Chinese as a second language benefit from linguistic research, and to help both the young teachers who are teaching foreigners learning Chinese and those who are in school readying themselves to get into the field.

  1. 走入主流:美國大學先修(AP)中文考試2007-2010結果分析  陳雅芬
    Going Mainstream: An Analysis of 2007-2010 AP Chinese Exam Results by Yea-Fen
  • 摘要
    隨著中國經濟、政治、軍事勢力的崛起,全球掀起了一股中文熱。在此潮流下,美國大學理事會設置大學先修(AP)中文課程、考試更帶動了高中生學習中文的熱潮,也同時提升了中文在美國主流社會的重要性。自2006年秋季AP課程開始設置、2007年春季年第一次AP考試至今已五年,有關AP中文課程、考試及其影響力的討論仍在持續中。本文將從大學理事會公布的考生人數、考生成分、考試成績來分析四年來AP中文考試的結果,此結果也將與AP考試其他AP外語考試(法文、德文、意大利文、日文、西班牙文)、尤其是與AP中文同時設立的AP日文及與中文同樣有眾多傳承語學習者的西班牙文做比較。最後筆者也探討AP中文考試對美國中文教育正面及反面的影響。

As China has gained prominence in the global arena as an economic, political, and military power, the study of Chinese has become increasingly popular. In response, the College Board of the United States launched the Advanced Placement (AP) Chinese Language and Culture Course and Exam, further driving high school students’ interest in learning Chinese and raising the status of Chinese in mainstream American society. It has been more than four years since the implementation of the first AP Chinese courses in fall 2006 and the AP Chinese Exam in spring 2007, but discussion about the AP Chinese Language and Culture Course and Exam and its influence is still taking place. This paper will analyze data released by the College Board regarding the number, demographics, and scores of the AP Chinese examinees over the last four years, and compare the results from the AP Chinese Exam and AP exams in other world languages (French, German, Italian, Japanese and Spanish) , focusing in particular on the AP Japanese Exam and AP Spanish Exam. Finally the author will explore the positive and negative impacts the AP Chinese Exam has had on Chinese language education in the United States.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第一期(2010.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 對外漢語聲調教學之現狀與教學法  刑志群
    Tone Pedagogy and Acquisition in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language by Janet Zhiqun Xing
  • 摘要
    本文通過對比分析漢語語音的特點,以及前人對漢語聲調和語調教學的研究結果,探討對外漢語聲調教學,特別是對英漢語之聲調教學之教學法。結果表明漢語內部的聲調和語調的干擾以及學生母語的干擾是造成他們學習漢語聲調困惑的兩個主要原因。根據這種情況,筆者提出聲調和語調互動的教學法,並且通過教學實踐演示、說明在教學中只有強調片語的聲調和語調的互動,學生才能真正掌握、學好漢語的聲調。

This study investigates the current popular methodologies used for teaching Chinese tones to non-native speakers, particularly English native speakers. Contrastive analysis is used to show that the difficulty in acquiring Chinese tones arises from two types of interference: interference between tones and intonations, and interference between Chinese intonations and those of the students’ native language. Evidence from this study suggests that the best way to help students learn tones is to teach phrasal / sentential tones and intonation, rather than individual tones.

  1. 詞義成分在TCSL的分析與應用-從「吃麥當勞」談起  許長謨
    Semantic Components and Their Analysis and Application in TCSL-Taking “Eating McDonald’s” as an Example by Chang-Mo Hsu
  • 摘要
    語言中的語義問題常依附在語音或構詞語法中呈現,形成語言的結構關係(Structuralism)。對外華語教學的學習者多屬成年的外國人,溝通時比較重視語義的正確性。由於學習者的音韻、語法能力薄淺,直接影響到對語(詞)義的領會,而其隨機或積蓄而迸發的語義問題往往或因跳脫教學者母語的構詞與語用習性,致教學者措手不及;或因平日習焉不察的問題在教學當場提問,而使教師難以第一時間回應。因此,華語教師須有一定的認知。在詞義的基本分析時,音韻問題一確立,就須直接面對構詞或語法的橫向組合(Syntagmatic)關係,先由上下語境(Co-text)確立語感的正確度,再縱向的嘗試其他的聚合(Paradigmatic)關係,以確認相似詞的正確度。後設檢驗中,符號學三角形(Triangle of Semiology)中「Word(Symbol)- Thought(Concept)- Thing(Referent)」的遞延關係是個分析原則。但在延伸應用或舉例時,使用語意成分(Semantic Components)的析離及上下義位的檢竅,或傳統語義學同義詞或反義詞等觀念做對比來檢驗語義的合宜度,都可以增進教學時對華語詞義的確認。本論文意圖利用幾個實際有效的角度,以實際教學為例,探討語義學(Semantics)的分析與應用。由於範圍過大,因此擬從「我們去吃麥當勞」一句漸漸通行的話語談起,舉用引出相關的教學原理,進以語義學理論論析如何輔助對外華語之教學。

Problems with semantics are often related to phonetic and syntactic issues, and reveal the nature of the structure of language. Most learners of Chinese as a second language are foreign adults, for whom accurate meaning is very important, but whose insufficient phonological and syntactic competence obstructs comprehension. However, their semantics-related questions during class are often impossible for teachers to answer using only their native speaker intuition. As a result, common but easily-missed problems frequently baffle first-time instructors. Therefore, an effective Chinese language teacher should possess some understanding of semantics.At the basic level of semantic analysis, once phonological problems are established, the cross-sectional syntagmatic relationship between morphology and syntax must be directly confronted. First, context must be used to determine the accuracy of one’s language intuition, and then other paradigmatic relationships must be tested longitudinally to confirm the accuracy of similar words. The ”Word (Symbol) – Thought (Concept) – Thing (Referent)” relationship of the Triangle of Semiology is an important analytical principle for attaining a proper understanding. However, while extending its application, we must use semantic components to examine the hyponymy, or the synonyms, polysemy and antonyms in classical semantics, and compare the appropriate usage. This can enhance the effectiveness of Chinese teaching.This paper attempts to use pedagogy as an example, and from several realistic perspectives explores the analysis and application of semantics. In order to narrow the scope of this study, we begin with the example sentence ”Eating McDonald’s” to elicit relevant pedagogical principles, and expound on ways for semantic theories to support the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language.

  1. 漢語動詞「生」的語意發展  曹逢甫、 陳菘霖
    The Semantic Development of the Chinese Verb “Sheng” by Feng-Fu Tsao and Sung-Lin Chen
  • 摘要
    本文從「以人體為本」和SUMO知識本體架構,歸結出動詞「生1」(亦即人類傳宗接代)始於人類自身的經驗行為,從語意核心開始呈現「幅射結構」的發展分作三條路徑:藉著隱喻機制映射到動物、植物、事態或事件的出現,「生1」的語意逐步泛化為「生2」(植物的出生、事態的發生)。再從「生1」的生殖模式,引申為「活著」即「生3」;人類的生殖模式從熟悉的母體到外在世界,可以表示對於事件的主體(人、事、物)呈現不了解、不熟悉的程度即「生4」。

This article analyzes the Chinese verb ”sheng” by using the concept of embodied cognition, and utilizing the SUMO ontology framework. The results show that the semantic core of sheng, the verb sheng 1, refers to human reproduction and therefore originates from human behavior. From this core the word developed in three main directions. Sheng 2 developed through metaphorical generalization to refer to the birth of animals or plants, or the beginning of an event. Sheng 3 developed the meaning ”to be alive” through sheng 1’s meaning of reproduction. Finally, sheng 4, which expresses a person or thing’s lack of understanding of or unfamiliarity with another person, place or situation, developed from the concept of leaving a mother’s womb and entering an unfamiliar world.

  1. 華語近義詞辨識難易度與學習策略初探  蔡美智
    Preliminary Study on Strategies for Learning Near-Synonyms in TCSL by Mei-Chih Tsai
  • 摘要
    學習第二語言到了中高級階段,語言表達準確與否關鍵不再是語法,而是詞彙。祖人植(1999)考察中高級階段華語詞彙偏誤,發現主要難點在於近義混淆,偏誤情形以動詞為最,名詞、形容詞次之。本文針對這三個詞類,外加副詞,探討相關近義詞群難以辨識的原因。研究方法採問卷調查,首先比對近義詞詞典揀選詞群,參照近義詞工具書所附說明和練習題製作問卷;其次發放就讀中高級華語課程的外籍生作答,回收後統計偏誤率,藉以評量詞群難易度:進而檢視說明內容和答題表現,確認學習難點,探討相關學習策略和教學策略。

Language learning at intermediate or high levels is mainly a matter of mastering vocabulary. According to Zu (1999), the use of near-synonyms is a major problem for learners at these levels. This study uses questionnaires to test how well intermediate and advanced CSL students can distinguish synonymous verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs. The error frequency in these questionnaires is used to evaluate the difficulty of distinguishing pairs of synonyms. Learning and teaching strategies are also discussed.

  1. 漢語的動詞刪略句與英漢對比分析  魏廷冀
    VP-ellipsis in Mandarin Chinese: A Comparative Analysis by Ting-Chi Wei
  • 摘要
    本文解析漢語動詞刪略句之焦點結構,從而理解漢語動詞刪略結構的訊息本質;更進一步從英漢對比分析的角度,比對英漢動詞刪略句之異同。我們不僅釐清了漢語動詞刪略句之焦點結構外,也針對英漢動詞刪略句的指涉及類型,作了清楚的比較,期望有助於了解此兩種語言動詞刪略句的基本差異,並冀望在華語教學上有所啟發。

This paper analyzes the focus structure of sentences with verb phrase ellipsis in Mandarin Chinese, and also contrasts ellipsis in English and Mandarin Chinese. Some pedagogical suggestions on the instruction of Mandarin VP-ellipsis are offered on the basis of these findings.

  1. 華語拒絕請求的策略分析:語體與語境的作用  謝佳玲
    An Analysis of Strategies for Refusing Requests in Chinese: Stylistic an Contextual Factors by Chia-Ling Hsieh
  • 摘要
    本研究根據真實的請求情境歸納華語的拒絕模式,詮釋在特定語體與語境變因作用下之運作特徵。語料來自台灣大學生與研究助理的對話內容,溝通媒介包括電話與電郵;拒絕標的包括勞心與勞力請求。結果指出,拒絕行為一般包含意圖明確的拒絕與阻因兩個成分,在電話中出現順序不定,偶以迂迴策略取代;在電郵中偏好先說明阻因再拒絕,並搭配更多道謝與道歉的禮貌策略。兩種語料的差異反映媒介的特性,電話接近口語語體;電郵接近書面語體。請求類型亦影響拒絕模式,內在阻因多用以拒絕勞心的請求;外在阻因拒絕勞力的請求,可見拒絕行為與請求標的有其相依性。結論顯示語言、語體與語境的互動,並為語用分析與華語教學的聯繫提供例證。

This study classifies Chinese refusals and examines their usage in particular styles and contexts. The refusals examined were in response to real-life request. The language data is drawn from telephone and email conversations between Taiwanese university students and research assistants. The results show that refusals tend to be explicit, and consist of a refusal and an impeding factor. In refusals made over the telephone these two components do not appear in a fixed order, and are occasionally replaced by indirect refusal strategies. In email the impeding factor often precedes the refusal, and politeness strategies such as gratitude and apology appear more often. These differences reflect the contrast between the styles of spoken and written communication. The nature of the request also affects the refusal. Internal impeding factors are often given in response to requests involving mental labor, while external impeding factors are given in response to requests that involve physical labor. The study’s conclusion explains the interaction between language, style and context, and provides examples that link pragmatic analysis and Chinese language teaching.