《華語學刊》常年徵稿

 

《華語學刊》常年徵稿

本刊為「台灣華語文教學學會」會刊,原名《台灣華語文教學》,自 2013 年起更名為《華語學刊》,刊載華語文教學領域之學理性與實務性文章,歡迎海內外華語教學界之專家學者踴躍賜稿。

《華語學刊》常年徵稿,徵稿內容包括:

  1. 華語教學之學理探討,包括漢語語言學、華語教學法、語言習得與認知等。
  2. 華語教學之實務應用,包括華語聽說讀寫技能之教學方法、教材設計等。
  3. 外籍學生在臺灣學習華語之現身說法(中外文不拘)。
  4. 各地在華語文教學之相關事務及發展過程之介紹與討論。
  5. 臺灣華語文教學機構之動態介紹。

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《華語學刊》投稿人基本資料表

《華語學刊》著作授權同意書

《臺灣華語教學研究》2018年第2期(總第17期)徵稿主題:語料庫與華語教學

《臺灣華語教學研究》2018年第2期(總第17期)徵稿主題:語料庫與華語教學

特刊徵稿主題:語料庫與華語教學
(Corpora and Teaching Chinese as a Second Language)
特約主編:陶紅印
總編輯: 鄭錦全

說明:
隨著電子科技的發達,數字化的語料庫作為新興的研究工具已經為語言學和應用語言學的各個領域帶來新的視點和資源。縱觀目前學界研究現狀,華語語料庫的建置已經初有成效,各類大小規模的語料庫不斷出現,研究成果也在不斷創新。然而在華語教學界,有系統地討論語料庫在語言教學方面的應用,尤其是課堂中應用的案例尚不多見。有鑑於此,本刊特別設立專刊,報導語料庫在華語教學研究和實踐中的最新研究成果。

徵稿範圍:
1. 適用於華語教學的語料庫的構建策略與成果
2. 基於語料庫的教學策略
3. 基於語料庫語體比較與教學應用
4. 學習者語料庫的建立與開發
5. 語料庫與各類語言能力的教學:語音、詞彙、語法、語義、篇章和語用等
6. 基於語料庫的教材、工具書的開發利用
7. 多媒體語料庫的開發
8. 其他相關議題

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投稿截止:本期特刊論文自即日起至2018年8月31日前投稿,先到先審。
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《臺灣華語教學研究》投稿人基本資料表

《臺灣華語教學研究》著作授權同意書

《華語學刊》總第二十三期(2017.12)

目錄

Table of Contents

華語教學之學理研究

  • 只依靠輸入可以學習華語新詞嗎? 黃玉樹

摘要:學習第二語言的時候,輸入(input)扮演了很重要的角色。Krashen(1982)所提出的輸入假設(Input Hypothesis)為語言教學的研究帶來許多議題。本研究探討四個和輸入相關的變項,其中句子限制、接觸次數、理解/不理解句子脈絡、學過/沒學過目標語詞,後兩者是學習者和輸入接觸後所產生的變項。句子限制指的是新詞所鑲嵌的句子脈絡。由於新詞所在的句子脈絡中承載了不一樣的資訊量,因此對於新詞詞義的可能性產生或大或小的限制。高句子限制指的是句子使詞義的可能性被限縮到較小的範圍,例如:「他握著刀的『柄』,快速地切菜。」;而低句子限制對於新詞的詞義相對開放,例如:「那鍋子的『柄』很可愛,讓人看就買。」頻率指的是學習者在不同的句子中接觸新詞的次數。研究發現有三:一、句子限制有條件地影響新詞學習;二、頻率不影響新詞學習、三、學習者對於句子的理解影響新詞學習。單從輸入的質(句子脈絡)和量(頻率)來看,新詞的學習可能忽略了學習者和輸入之間的互動。句子脈絡只能在某些條件下影響新詞的學習,當學習者能夠理解句子脈絡才能夠學會新詞。

華語教學之實務應用

  • 影響華語文教師價值觀轉變之國際趨勢 李和舫

摘要:本國華語文教學研究,於本體論、方法論、認識論與工具論四面向已取得不少成果。華語師資養成與教師發展議題,多集中於課程規劃與教學能力等領域。鑒於理解教育變革在教師職涯與教學實踐中扮演之關鍵角色,本文特別以教育學視角,探索華語教學實踐在大環境變遷下作出回應的方式,及其如何成為現代教育趨勢。筆者運用發展心理學的生態系統理論為研究架構,從教師專業訓練、學習者角度及高等院校三面向,透過理論結合實務舉證進行討論,總結正影響華語文教育價值觀的三個國際趨勢:教學法時代更迭、轉化中的學習型態,以及與日俱增的高等教育合作。本文最後提出趨勢轉變對教學實踐分別造成的衝擊與教育啓示,主張包括重新思索教學、調整教師角色,以及審視個人教學傳統,以作為華語文教師專業發展領域之參考。

專欄:臺灣華語教學發展的歷史回顧

  • 華語時光機 : 談1980年代的華語教學──高賢玲老師專訪 許瑞容、蘇韵文
  • 走過一甲子—─葉德明老師專訪 李瑄、王曉鈴、段氏香

華育獎專欄

  • 討論耗時近兩年,首次「華育獎」頒發及其緣起 歐喜強
  • 35年磨一劍──與後輩談談華語教學 林伶俐

知困──擁抱世界的這段華語教學歲月 鄧翠雲

華語教學實務分享

  • 淺談在日中文補習班教學技巧 王上玟
  • 拓殖大學築夢記 溫亭羽

教學實習觀想

  • 淡江大學華語中心實習成果心得分享 吳彥儒
  • 淡江大學華語中心實習成果心得分享 張合廷
  • 淡江大學華語中心實習成果心得分享 黃思瑜

外籍生分享

  • 大自然的啟示 小橋淳子
  • 廣達國際文化大使活動學習旅程─我在台東遇見春天 何忠厚

活動報導

  • 第三次華語沙龍活動報導 張金蘭

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十五期(2017.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 「國際漢語」概念的提出和發展  洪歷建、徐慧
    The Concept of Teaching Chinese as an International Language by Lijian Hong, Hui Xu
  • 摘要
    本文描述全球語境下「國際漢語」這一新概念的起源與發展,討論「國際漢語」與其他漢語國際教育概念的異同,以及有關此概念的政策與理論依據。本研究根據聯合國關於少數民族語言權利的觀點,並借鑒有關澳大利亞「國家語言政策」的理論與實踐,以及「國際英語」的相關研究,將國際語言學界的相關理論引入漢語的國際教育研究領域,並以新的、全球化的思維替代傳統的對外漢語教育觀念,以便更好地理解和發展作為「國際性語言」的漢語。

This paper discusses the origin and the development of the new concept of Teaching Chinese as an International Language. It discusses the similarities and dissimilarities between this concept and other concepts that concern the global education of Chinese language and culture. The discussion involves the policies and theories that support the new concept, which include UN’s position on the protection of the linguistic rights of the minority peoples, Australia’s National Policy on Languages and researches in the concept of Global English. The paper attempts to introduce theories and concepts of international linguistic studies into the research and global education of Chinese language. It aims to replace our traditional understanding of teaching Chinese for foreigners with a new concept of global perspective so that we will be able to understand and develop Chinese as an international language.

  1. 臺美兩地華語教師之任務型教學認知理解與推動現況研究  曾妙芬、鍾鎮城
    Chinese Language Teachers’ Perceptions and Implementation of Task-based Language Teaching in Taiwan and the US by Miao-fen Tseng, Chen-Cheng Chun
  • 摘要
    任務型教學雖為目前華語教學的主流方法之一,但在應用上各教學現場常存有差異。本研究探討臺灣及美國兩地華語教師對任務型教學的認知理解,以及在操作執行任務活動時的觀點與信心程度。受試者包含兩地大學的華語教師共292位,採線上問卷方式蒐集資料,並以費雪精確檢定(Fisher’s Exact Test)為檢測工具。結果顯示,兩地大學華語教師對任務型教學皆有適當的認知理解,但程度上有所不同,在執行任務活動的觀點上也有顯著差異。另外,兩地教師在執行任務型教學活動的自我信心程度上均呈現高度信心表現,但在不同任務項目有顯著差別。本文最後回應Thomas(2015)弱式版本(weak version)之任務型教學論點,以突顯臺美兩地任務型教學因地制宜之操作彈性。

Task-based language teaching (TBLT) is a mainstream language teaching method in the field of teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language (TCSL/TCFL). However, there is considerable variation in classroom application. This study investigates perceptions, perspectives, and confidence levels of TCSL/TCFL teachers in Taiwan and the United States who implement TBLT in their classrooms. An online survey was administered to 292 TCSL/TCFL teachers at colleges or universities, and Fisher’s Exact Test was used to statistically analyze survey responses. Results showed that TCSL/TCFL teachers in both groups demonstrated appropriate understanding of TBLT; however, the groups differed significantly in degrees of understanding and perspectives on implementation. Furthermore, although both Taiwanese and U.S. teachers were confident in task implementation, their confidence levels differed in various aspects. Responding to the argument and approach of Thomas (2015), the study verifies the applicability of the weak TBLT version and flexibility of its implementation in Taiwan and the United States.

  1. Mnemonics in the Chinese L2 Lexicon by Jerry Packard
    學習華語為二語的詞語記憶術  Jerry Packard
  • 摘要
    This paper proposes three mnemonic teaching and learning strategies that exploit working memory to make Chinese L2 vocabulary easier to store and retrieve. These strategies follow from experimental results demonstrating that the component of working memory known as Focus of Attention (FA) is as robust in second-language learners as it is in native speakers. The first strategy involves utilizing the natural collocation inherent in Chinese word and phrase content. The second strategy takes advantage of the redundant listing of tones in the Chinese lexicon. The third strategy exploits the well-known homophony inherent in Chinese lexical items. Taken together, these three mnemonic devices may be considered information ‘handles’ that the Chinese language is especially equipped to provide. The information can be used by L2 learners of Chinese to improve their lexical storage and retrieval capability.

本文提出三種利用工作記憶進行的記憶術教學與學習策略,以便使華語詞語對二語學習者更容易儲存與提取。此策略源自近年的實驗,結果顯示工作記憶中的注意力焦點在二語學習者腦中運作的穩健性與母語者相同。第一種策略運用華語詞語與詞組內容中固有的自然搭配;第二種策略利用額外加上的華語詞語聲調標示;第三種策略使用華語詞語中的固有同音詞。綜合而言,這三種記憶機制可視為華語特有的訊息「處理裝置」,華語的二語學習者能加以運用並藉此改善他們的詞語儲存與提取能力。

  1. 華語作為第二語言泰籍學習者聲調之感知研究  陳春美
    Tone Perception of Thai-Speaking Second Language Learners of Mandarin Chinese by Chun-Mei Chen
  • 摘要
    本論文探討華語作為第二語言泰籍學習者對於華語聲調感知的習得歷程,根據華語學習者聲調聽辨感知的追蹤研究,進行華語作為第二語言聲調感知習得的分析。本論文研究對象包含臺灣及泰國地區的泰籍華語學習者共計30名,接受本研究的聲調測試與追蹤。研究結果顯示,在學習時數相同的條件下,臺灣地區的泰籍華語學習者在華語第一聲(高平調)、第三聲(降升調或低調)、第四聲(降調)方面的感知準確率高於第二聲(升調),整體聲調聽辨感知準確率優於泰國地區的華語學習者,證實華語學習者留學目標語地區的經驗會強化泰籍華語學習者的華語聲調感知習得。本研究感知實驗結果支持「語音學習模式」(Flege 1995),並提出以華語課室溝通式情境互動聲調練習,改善泰籍學習者對華語聲調第二聲感知的偏誤。

This study investigates the tone perception of Thai-speaking second language learners of Mandarin Chinese. Thirty Thai-speaking learners of Mandarin Chinese from two groups (Study-Abroad Group and At-Home Group) participated in the longitudinal study in Taiwan and Thailand. Using a pre-test-post-test design, it compared the effects of study abroad on the accuracy rate of Mandarin tonal perception of Thai-speaking learners of Mandarin Chinese. The results showed that most Thai learners of Mandarin Chinese in the Study-Abroad Group perceived Mandarin level tone (Tone 1), low falling-rising tone (Tone 3) and falling tone (Tone 4) more accurately. Study-Abroad Group outperformed At-Home Group on the tonal perception tests. On the other hand, error tokens of Tone 2 from perception tests were reduced in the Study-Abroad Group, after 24 hours of studying Mandarin in Taiwan. Findings from the perception tests support the Speech Learning Model (Flege 1995). This study suggests that communicative tonal drills and explicit phonetic instruction in Mandarin classroom interactions have effects on the tonal perception accuracy of second language learners of Mandarin Chinese.

  1. 義素為本的詞語教學—以關鍵義素組構詞語網絡  歐德芬
    Sememe-based Teaching of Word Meanings—Word Network Constructed with Key Sememes by Te-Fen Ou

摘要
提高華語詞彙素養以及提升詞語使用等級,是中級以上華語學習者提高語言能力的關鍵,因此本文基於聯結理論提出透過義素與詞語之鏈結,以關鍵義素組構詞語網絡進行華語詞語學習。本研究以組詞率高的義素「開」為主體,透過資料庫得出義素「開」的詞語,再由詞頻次數及語料庫例句確認一組具有華語優先學習價值「開」的複合詞,復以認知語言學的語法連綿性導入語義連綿性,分析出「開」具有代表性的特徵屬性,並勾勒4個「開」的意象圖式(image),再據以分析「開」於複合詞中的不同義素。分析結果得出「開」具有6個不同義素,再以之為關鍵義素使「開」的43筆複合詞得以歸併為六組詞語網絡,最後提出詞語網絡教學原則,以供華語教師及教材編撰者參考。

One of the main ways of enhancing the language proficiency of Chinese learners above the intermediate level is to assist them in improving their Chinese vocabulary literacy and usage level. Thus, based on the connection between sememes and words advanced in the Connectionism theory, this study proposes that word teaching can be conducted by using a word network constructed with key sememes. This study retrieves words with the high-frequency sememe, kai, from the corpus, and examines word frequency and sentence use in order to determine a set of kai-compounds that are worth learning in an earlier stage. This study then integrates the syntax-lexicon continuum in cognitive linguistics with the semantic continuum, indicates the attributes of kai, presents its 4 images, and then analyzes the sememes of compounds with kai. The results show that kai has 6 sememes, which can be used to categorize 43 kai-compounds into 6 word networks. Finally, a teaching guide on the 6 word networks is provided as a reference for Chinese teachers and textbook compilers.

《華語學刊》總第二十二期(2017.06)

目錄

Table of Contents

華語教學之實務應用研究

  • 香港非華語學生中文課程的實施:困境與對策 李詠達

摘要:香港的中文作為第二語言教學的課程,除了由大專院校開辦的對外漢語課程及國際學校提供的中文課程外,還有近年備受關注的面向非華語學生(Non-Chinese Speaking Students)的中文課程。本文旨在評介香港非華語學生中文課程的實施狀況及其特色,通過對有關文獻及統計資料的考查與分析,探討當中的教學困境與對策。研究針對目前非華語學生中文教學在課程、評估及師資方面的不足展開論述,建議當局考慮從以下三方面加以改善:一、改革課程設置,重新審視對非華語學生的語文教育政策,積極考慮另設一個適應非華語學生學習需求的中文課程,與本地華裔學生的中文課程雙軌並行;二、優化評估機制,建立適用於香港本地的中文作為第二語言能力的評核基準,客觀反映非華語學生的中文學習進度和能力水平;三、加強校本支援及師資培訓,針對目前非華語學生中文教材不足、教師工作量大的情況,增撥資源加強校本專業支援,並與大學及研究機構合作,提供合適的教師培訓及開發教材資源等,以改善目前的教學困境,提升教學成果。

專欄:臺灣華語教學發展的歷史回顧

  • 范慧貞老師專訪-華語教學生涯之回顧與展望 陳秀慧、 梁安琪、曾詩敏
  • 興趣與熱情交織而成的志業 專訪臺灣師範大學國語中心資深華語教師-張英彥老師 陳憶華 、 梁允禎

華語教學實務分享

  • The Status of Chinese Language in the Philippines: With Special Focus on Grace Christian College Zenaida P. Lumba
  • 邁向國際化:解析華語熱浪延燒菲律濱之概況 吳佳玲、黃婷婷、陳宏濤、林芳惠
  • 菲國華語教學細談 許麗月
  • 華語教學在菲律賓-以靈惠學院華語文化研究中心為例 蔡惠名
  • 回顧菲華新文學與華教關係 陳若莉(九華)
  • All You Need is Love: An Affective Approach to Encouraging Chinese Language Study Joshua Kellard
  • 大數據-數位學習軌跡翻轉教室,傳統華語文教學領域所面臨的危機 吳玉燕
  • 菲律賓基礎教育體制改革下的華校 黃端銘
  • 菲律濱基督教靈惠學院師資培育與數位應用 黃婷婷
  • 知識翻新型師資培訓之實踐報告-以菲律賓靈惠學院華語教師為對象 鄭立民
  • 靈惠推廣菲律賓漢字書法教學 黃婷婷

教學實習觀想

  • 菲律濱靈惠學院時習心得 吳奇瑾
  • 菲律濱基督教靈惠學院華語文教學實務經驗分享 陳柏璋
  • 靈惠學院實習心得 蘇郁璇

活動報導

  • 2016年台灣華語教學年會暨國際學術研討會沙龍座談會紀錄

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十四期(2017.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. A Typological Analysis of Chinese Heritage Language Programs at Universities in North America and Oceania by Karen Huang
    北美紐澳大學華裔中文傳承教育類型分析  黃克文
  • 摘要
    With a growing number of Chinese immigrants around the world, more and more heritage language learners want to learn Chinese at universities in their settling country. It has been widely accepted that the heritage language learners should receive separate curricula because their needs are different from the Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners. However, programs do not always have enough resources to offer a separate instruction for the heritage language learners. There is a need to bridge the gap between theory and practice. This study examines 39 Chinese programs from the top 150 universities in Modern languages in North America and Oceania. Based on the data, a typology of the Chinese heritage language programs is presented. Further analyses illustrate that 77% of the investigated top universities offer heritage courses. However, there seems to be a regional difference between North America and Oceania. Furthermore, the complexity of heritage programs is correlated to Asian/Chinese demographics in the universities or the regions. The university structure and student demographics play an important role in program curricula. Based on these findings, further recommendations are proposed to assist a program to develop its heritage language track in a realistic manner.

隨著海外華人移民增加,愈來愈多華裔學生希望在當地大學學習中文。由於華裔學生學習需求與其他學生不同,分開設置華裔班獲得教育界廣泛認可,然而理想與實際之間差距不小,並非所有中文項目都有能力另外開班。本研究調查美加紐澳共三十九個、在現代外語領域世界排名前一百五十名的中文項目,根據其華裔教學課程做類型學分析。結果發現其中77%設有華裔班,其設置與否、課程完整度與地區及亞裔或華裔的比例相關,華裔班的開設顯然受大學學制與學生族群影響。本研究進而對期望發展其華裔課程的中文系,斟酌實際並提出建議。

  1. 落地生根的胡姬花:新加坡華裔語言形態與身份認同解讀  吳英成、馮耀華
    One People, One Nation, One Singapore: Language Use and Identity among Chinese Singaporeans by Yeng Seng Goh, Yeow Wah Fong
  • 摘要
    新加坡華人從祖籍地中國移居到「星洲」,積極融入居留地生活,成家立業,繁衍後代,入籍成為新加坡公民。經過新加坡建國五十年來積極推動的種族融合政策,不僅潛移默化地建構出有別於中國祖籍地的華人身份認同,新加坡華族社會語言生態也發生重大變化。不同世代、不同家庭常用語、不同教育背景的華裔,對華族語言文化認同以及對華人族群認同出現顯著差異。在全球化時代中,祖籍地中國人與世界各地的華人,應該尊重與接受華裔經過時空變遷後產生的異質事實。

Migrating from homeland in China to Singapore, Singapore Chinese put down roots, have a family and eventually become citizens in Singapore. The implementation of the racial integration policy in the past fifty years has not only forged a distinctive Chinese Singaporean identity, but also brought a major change in the sociolinguistic landscape. There is thus a significant variation in attitudes towards Chinese language and culture and ethnic Chinese identity across generational cohorts, due to different home language use and education background. It is essential, in the age of globalisation, for mainland Chinese and Chinese overseas to recognise and respect the fact that Chinese overseas has evolved a distinctive identity over time and space.

  1. 泰國華裔青年之華語語音習得與偏誤分析  梁月美、劉惠美
    The Mandarin Pronunciation Acquisition and Error Analysis in Thai Chinese Youth by Kamolwan Noppadolsathan and Huei-Mei Liu

摘要
本研究目的在於分析泰國華裔學生在華語語音習得中的偏誤情形,包括習得聲母、聲調發音的偏誤比率和型態,了解泰籍華生在學習華語的語音困難點分布情形及產生偏誤的可能原因。本研究以在台灣學習華語之泰國華裔學生(簡稱泰籍華生)為對象,採單字詞的念讀方式,蒐集泰籍華生的華語聲母、聲調之語音樣本,並讓華語母語者以耳聽知覺的評音方式,判斷個別聲母、聲調的正確率,並加以排序分析其偏誤類型。研究結果顯示,在聲母方面,泰籍華生最常把送氣塞擦音發成擦音,例如ch/tʂ^h/發成sh/ʂ/、q/tɕ^h/發成x/ɕ/,舌尖後濁擦音r/ʐ/發成舌尖中邊音l/l/,舌尖後音發成舌尖前音,zh/tʂ/發成z/ts/,sh/ʂ/發音成s/s/,或者舌面音發成舌尖音,如x/ɕ/發成s/s/。在聲調方面,泰籍華生多數能準確發出華語的四個聲調,惟在陽平發音成去聲的偏誤率較高。期許透過本研究之發音偏誤類型分析、偏誤排序及對泰籍華生之語音教學建議,讓華語教師教授泰籍華生時,能提升其華語語音教學之成效。

The main purposes of this study are to analyze the error patterns and problems of Mandarin initial consonants and tones for Thai Chinese students, and to examine the possible effects Chinese background can impose on Thai Chinese students in the area of Mandarin pronunciation. The sample participants tested in this study are Thai Chinese students who study Mandarin in Taiwan. Single word reading method is used to collect the data of pronunciation of Mandarin initial consonants and tones from Thai Chinese students. Perceptual judgment technique is used to determine the correct rate of each Mandarin initials and tones and their error patterns. In addition, this study ranks the error type frequency on different Mandarin initials 0and tones, showing a more scientific frequency ranking on Thai Chinese pronunciation. The results show that in terms of consonant pronunciations, the main error patterns for Thai Chinese speakers are their pronunciation of affricative sound to be fricative sound, such as ch/tʂ^h/is pronounced as sh/ʂ/, q/tɕ^h/is pronounced as x/ɕ/, Also, their pronunciation of retroflex sound to pronounce as alveolar sound, such as r/ʐ/ is pronounced as l/l/; retroflex sound to pronounce as alveolar sound, such as zh/tʂ/ is pronounced as z/ts/, sh/ʂ/is pronounced as s/s/; or alveolo-palatal sound to be pronounced as alveolar sound, such as x/ɕ/to pronounced as s/s/. In terms of tones, most Thai Chinese students can accurately pronounce the four Mandarin tones; however there is the slightly higher rate of error in the second tone to be pronounced as fourth tone. Based on this error type analysis and error type ranking, it is hoped that Mandarin teachers will be able to improve the effectiveness of Chinese phonetics teaching when interacting with Thai students with Chinese background.

  1. Home Language Environment, Socioeconomic Status and Chinese Oral Competence in Singaporean Chinese Children Aged 6 by Lynn Dee Puah and Chee Lay Tan
    新加坡六歲華族兒童的家庭語言環境、社會經濟地位與華語口語能力  潘霖妮、陳志銳
  • 摘要
    In Singapore, the use of English at home was generally more prevalent among Chinese community with higher socioeconomic status (SES). In this paper, we aim to investigate the current home language environment of Singapore Chinese children, and to find out the relationships between home language, SES, and Chinese oral competence in Singaporean Chinese children. 1233 parents of Singapore Chinese children aged 6 from 73 preschools participated in the questionnaire survey, and 377 Singapore Chinese children aged 6 participated in the language proficiency test. The results showed that Singapore Chinese children aged 6 used more English at home. SES had direct influence on home language exposure. Home language exposure had direct influence on Chinese oral competence. SES had no direct influence on Chinese oral competence. The results suggest that the promotion of Chinese as the main home language is important and imminent. More investigations on home language and school language are needed for policy making.

在新加坡,社會經濟地位較高的華族社群,在家庭中使用英語的現象較為普遍。本研究旨在調查目前新加坡華族兒童的家庭語言環境,以及探討新加坡華族兒童家庭語言環境、社會經濟地位和口語能力之間的關係。本研究的參與者包括來自73所學前中心的6歲華族兒童及他們的家長。其中,1233名家長參與了問卷調查,377名兒童參加了口語能力測試。研究發現,新加坡6歲華族兒童在家多使用英語;社會經濟地位對家庭語言接觸具有預測力;家庭語言接觸對口語能力具有預測力。由此,我們認為鼓勵新加坡華族家庭在家中使用華語是重要且迫切的。為了更好地制定政策,日後需要更多關於家庭語言及學校語言的調查。

  1. 華語道歉策略的差別效應研究  張玉芳
    A Study on The Single and Joint Effects of Apology Component by Yuh-Fang Chang
  • 摘要
    現有探討言談行為「道歉」的相關研究不少,但多數學者聚焦於特定語言表達道歉的策略種類,或比較探討不同語言間表達道歉的策略差異。雖然這部分的研究發現,能幫助我們了解跨文化之間表達道歉策略的差異,但要清楚了解「道歉」言談行為,除了需要知道「表達道歉者」使用什麼策略道歉之外,也應探究每一類的道歉策略、或不同的道歉策略組合,所傳達的道歉誠意,對於「接受道歉者」而言,是否有差異。然而,現有探討道歉語的相關研究,多數是收集表達資料(production data),分析道歉策略的使用差異;或收集認知資料(perception data)針對道歉情境冒犯的嚴重程度、需要道歉的必要性、被冒犯者會接受道歉的可能性等認知差異做比較,都是從「表達道歉者」的角度探討「道歉」的言談行為。少有學者從「被冒犯者」(亦即:接受道歉者)的角度,探討每一類的道歉策略或不同的道歉策略組合,所傳達的道歉誠意,對於「接受道歉者」而言,是否有差異。本研究從「被冒犯者」的角度,探討每一類的道歉策略、不同道歉策略組合以及同一種道歉策略但不同的內容等,它們所傳達的道歉誠意的是否有別,並研究其認知是否有性別的差異。

People apologize differently. The apology strategies that previous studies classified include: (1) IFID expressing regret, (2) IFID requesting forgiveness, (3) intensifier, (4) repair, (5) explanation, (6) lack of intent, (7) self-blame, (8) admission of fact, (9) promise of forbearance, (10) acknowledgement, (11) concern, (12) minimizing, (13) alerter, (14) justification. Most of the research literature on the speech act of apology collected production data to examine the speech act of apology of a specific culture or compared the speech act of apology across cultural groups. The issue concerning whether and how different types of apology strategy work differently in changing the perception of transgressors has attracted relatively little attention from researchers. This study is intended to contribute to the body of research on pragmatics by examining the single and joint effects of apology components on the victim’s perception of transgressors.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十三期(2016.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 二語學習者與母語者穿戴類動詞的心理詞彙網絡之組織研究  錢旭菁
    A comparison study on the mental lexicon of native Chinese speakers and English learners of Chinese by Xujing Qian
  • 摘要
    人腦中的詞語是一個有組織的系統,這個系統一般被稱為心理詞彙。由一個詞聯想到另一個詞,反映了心理詞彙中詞語之間的聯繫。聯想實驗是一個研究人腦中心理詞彙的組織方式的常用方法。本文以詞語聯想的方法,考察母語為英語的漢語初級、中級、高級二語學習者心理詞彙中「穿、戴、脫、披」這四個動詞的組織方式與漢語母語者的異同。通過分析聯想詞和刺激詞之間的各種關係,本研究發現,二語學習者心理詞彙中的詞語網絡比母語者的稀疏,表現出他們詞語網絡中的詞語比漢語母語者少,詞與詞之間的聯繫不如漢語母語者的緊密。二語學習者心理詞彙中穿戴類四個動詞之間尚未建立任何語義方面的聯繫,這些動詞的組合聯繫的強度也比母語者弱。此外,二語學習者心理詞彙中的非語義聯繫比母語者多。二語學習者心理詞彙中意義無關的同音詞以及聲符相近的詞聯繫在一起不利於他們對這些詞的識別和提取。從詞義方面來說,二語者的心理詞彙中只涉及這四個動詞「穿脫衣物」這一最基本的義項,而漢語母語者心理詞彙包括這幾個動詞的多個義項。根據上述研究結果,本文從教學內容和教學順序兩方面對穿戴類動詞的教學提出了具體的建議。

The lexicon in human’s mind is an organized system which is called Mental Lexicon. Word association which reflects the relations of words is a common research method to study the organization of Mental Lexicon. Based on word association, we compare the organization of four action verbs related to Wearing in the Mental Lexicon between elementary to higher-level English speaking learners of Chinese and native Chinese. The four verbs were chuan (to wear clothes), dai (to wear glasses, hat, gloves, caps, etc.), tuo (to take off clothes, shoes, gloves, etc.) and pi (to drape over). Analyzing the relations between the response and the stimulus, we found that the word net connections of the learners were much sparse than those of the natives. The number of words in the net of learners was less than that of natives while their non-semantic relations were more than those of the natives. Concerning the meanings of the four verbs, the Mental Lexicon of learners only indicates the meaning of "put on/take off clothes", while the Mental Lexicon of natives Chinese shows several senses of these verbs. Suggestions of teaching contents and teaching sequences of these four verbs are proposed in this writing.

  1. 文類教學法在中文二語實用文教學的運用  邱佳琪
    Application of genre pedagogy in Chinese second language teaching and learning of practical writing by Cha Kie Hiew
  • 摘要
    在常用文類的教學中,二語學生需要學習如何理解並回應各種溝通管道的信息,以滿足生活中的社交需求,達到語言的溝通目標。實用文是一種常用的交換信息文類,因此是二語教學的重要文類。二語學習者除了掌握文類結構的概念,更需要對於不同情境下適用的內容及語言形式有所了解,以便準確、恰當地溝通或分享信息,而這些學習需求與交際目的及語境等因素是息息相關的。因此本文從系統功能語言學(Halliday 1994)的角度分析20 位中文第二語言學習者所寫的建議書,發現其中表現較弱的部分包括文步、語旨、語式、詞彙、情態、連接、指稱等等。此外也進一步通過「閱讀促進寫作」(Reading to Learn, Learning to Write)文類教學法進行教學設計,以針對中文二語的實用文寫作弱項,提出具體的建議與改善方法。「閱讀促進寫作」教學法結合系統功能語言學與支架教學的概念,形成從閱讀到寫作的完整教學設計。一方面,系統功能語言學提供了關於語言、文類、語境的系統性知識,有助於學習者掌握不同文類的結構與語言特點並應用於寫作;另一方面,此教學法在近年來經過不斷的實踐與完善,已證實能有效地提升學生的語文能力。相較於一般常見從內容、結構、語言等層面的寫作分析,本研究從系統功能語言學的角度,進一步細化寫作評量的標準與層面,從學習者寫作的真實語料分析其弱項,並採取具體的教學策略,使教學設計能有針對性地符合學生的學習需求。

Practical text or practical writing is the genre which carries messages to exchange information between sender and receiver. It’s important to learn how to interpret various information received in daily life and to respond appropriately for the social interaction purpose. And second language learners not only need to understand the concept of different genre, but also need to possess the knowledge about context and linguistic features of various texts to communicate well with others. Therefore this paper analyzes the practical writing of 20 CSL (Chinese as a second language) students and concludes their performance is generally weak especially in terms of stages, tenor, mode, ideation, appraisal, conjunction, and reference. Based on the analysis of CSL students’ authentic materials, this paper further applies the 「Reading to Learn, Learning to Write」pedagogy to design the teaching of practical writing with the concepts of genre, context, and language. Developed from the theory of Systemic Functional Linguistic, Reading to Learn pedagogy has been recognized as one of the most effective and well-designed genre study from theoretical and pedagogical aspects. The significance of this paper is to understand the performance and learning needs of CSL students, and to develop effective teaching design which can help to enhance the teaching and learning of Chinese practical writing.

  1. CEFR與ACTFL初級閱讀能力描述對應研究:以「兒童華語文能力測驗」為媒介  趙家璧、藍珮君、陳柏熹
    Aligning ACTFL and CEFR proficiency levels: utilizing children’s Chinese competency certification by Chia-Pi Chao, Pei-Jiun Lan, and Po-Hsi Chen
  • 摘要
    本研究採用國家華語測驗推動工作委員會參照CEFR 初級使用者(A 等)能力指標所研發的兒童華語文閱讀測驗為媒介,透過書籤法(Bookmark Method)標準設定程序,連結歐洲共同語文參考架構(CEFR)與美國外語教學協會能力指標(ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines)的初級閱讀能力,期能分析 CEFR 與ACTFL 初級閱讀能力描述的對應關係。本研究邀集11 位專家採用書籤法進行兩回合的標準設定研究,使用兒童華語文閱讀測驗題目,對ACTFL 初級與中級的能力描述進行標準設定。研究結果顯示:1. 低於CEFR A1 以下的Pre-A1 級約與ACTFL 初級初等、初級中等相當,而A1 級與初級高等、中級初等相當,至於A2 級則與中級中等、中級高等相當;2. 在標準設定結果的效度驗證方面,本研究提出程序性效度與內部效度兩項資料;3. 在定義初級閱讀能力時,CEFR 與ACTFL 有數項共同特徵和共通的學習進程。本研究結果有助於兒童測驗使用者透過CEFR 與ACTFL 的語言能力架構理解測驗結果,同時也提供華語文教學上有關CEFR 與ACTFL 對應的客觀依據。

ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines (ACTFL) and Common European Framework of Reference for Language (CEFR) are two major language proficiency guidelines adopted internationally in the fields of language teaching and assessment. This study aims to link the framework of CEFR and ACTFL by utilizing the Children’s Chinese Competency Certification (CCCC). 11 experts have participated in a two-round standard setting procedure applying the Bookmark Method. The CCCC Reading is a standardized test designed based on the CEFR proficiency descriptions for Basic User (A1-A2). The standard setting procedure was performed on the CCCC Reading focus on ACTFL novice and intermediate levels. The research suggests the following results. First, the pre-A1 reading proficiency which is lower than CEFR A1 is equivalent to the novice low and novice mid levels in ACTFL. The CEFR A1 reading proficiency is equivalent to ACTFL novice high and intermediate low levels and the CEFR A2 is equivalent to ACTFL intermediate mid and intermediate high levels. Second, the evidence of procedural validity and internal validity are provided to support the validation of the standard setting. Finally, in describing reading proficiency and learning progress in the beginner levels, the process of standard setting has revealed similar characteristics in both the CEFR and the ACTFL framework. The results of this study allow the test takers of CCCC to interpret test results with the language proficiency framework which they are familiar with. It can also provide language learners and educators with a more objective correspondence between CEFR and ACTFL.

  1. 華語教材評估指標初探:二語習得視角  李郁錦、 陳振宇
    A preliminary investigation of the criteria for evaluating Chinese teaching materials: a second language acquisition perspective by Yu-Chin Li and Jenn-Yeu Chen
  • 摘要
    本文從二語習得理論的視角出發,根據教材編撰的相關理論,提出一套華語教材研析的指標,期能做為華語教學設計或研析的參考。有關二語習得的主要因素和要件,雖學界仍無定論,但因其無論在外語教學或教材設計都有著至關重要的影響力。因此本文搜羅國內外與二語習得及教材編撰相關的書籍及論文共117 本/篇做為擬定指標的基礎。本研究首先彙整國內、外二語習得及教材設計的觀點,做綜合性的討論。其次,從中萃取出一套教材評析模式,此模式分:「語言」、「認知」、「教學」與「學習者」等四個層面,有17 項指標、80 項細目的教材評析工具之原型。此評析工具,除了可檢視二語習得相關理論的應用之外,也可以做為教材設計的參考指標,有助於將二語理論實際應用於教學及教材設計上。

Primarily based on theoretical views of second language acquisition (SLA), this article aims to design a prototype of indicators for Chinese teaching materials analysis from a pedagogical perspective. To this end, first of all, we briefly discussed what SLA theories can contribute to the teaching of Chinese as a second language. Secondly, we compiled and discussed the most relevant SLA and Materials Development in Language Teaching bibliography in the last few decades. At each point, based on the discussed theories, we attempted to extract indicators for the purpose of analyzing Chinese teaching materials. Eventually, we designed a prototype tool with 4 different levels: (1) Language, (2) Cognition, (3) Teaching Approach, and (4) Students which include 17 indicators, a total of 80 items. It could be used as a reference for analyzing materials as well as for designing them.

  1. A multilevel analysis of the linguistic features affecting Chinese text readability by Jia-Fei Hong, Yao-Ting Sung, Ho-Chiang Tseng, Kuo-En Chang, and Ju-Ling Chen
    影響中文文本閱讀難易度的多層次語言特徵分析  洪嘉馡、宋曜廷、曾厚強、 張國恩、陳茹玲
  • 摘要
    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the characteristics of text comprehension. We use an approach that includes 32 linguistic features from four main levels (word, semantic, syntactic, and cohesive) that relate to Chinese text readability. The aim is to overcome the restrictions that resulted from adopting only surface linguistic features in investigating text readability in the past. In the present study, the research materials include 386 texts from Chinese textbooks for Taiwan elementary school students in six grades. The texts are reasonably assumed to increase in complexity of readability from grade 1 to grade 6. The readability of each of the 32 features is derived from the statistical trend analysis with respect to the grades. It is hoped that the results of this study can be of significant use in teaching Chinese reading in Chinese as a second language.

本文研究文本理解的特性,論述採用詞彙類、語意類、句法類和文章凝聚性四個主要層次的32 個語言特徵,以探討中文文本閱讀難易度,克服前人僅採用一些表面語言特徵的限制。研究的實驗材料取自臺灣三個版本的小學一年級到六年級的課本共386 篇文本,從低年級到高年級的課文當作是文本從簡易到相對繁難的安排,這32 個語言特性的閱讀難易度以統計學的趨向分析依文本在年級的高低分布計算出來。過去華語為二語的文本分析大都採用學生偏誤的語料,本研究則以正規的文本為依據,做出中文文本閱讀難易度,希望研究成果能對華語為二語教學有所貢獻。

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十二期(2016.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 四部對外漢語大綱中語法等級項目分布研究  李培毓、楊志盛
    Analysis of Graded Chinese Grammatical Items Distribution within 4 TCSL Syllabuses by Pei-Yu Li and Zhi-Sheng Yang
  • 摘要
    本文選取四部內含語法項目的對外漢語大綱(即《漢語水平等級標準與語法等級大綱》、《高等學校外國留學生漢語言專業教學大綱》、《高等學校外國留學生漢語教學大綱(長期進修)》和《國際漢語教學通用課程大綱》)進行比較。先是針對大綱的基本情况,即適用對象、主要用途、相互關係做一整理,重新檢視四部大綱整體框架的對應關係;接著從等級的劃分到等級的數量再到等級的項目來比較分析,統計四部大綱在不同等級的數量多寡,歸納四部大綱共有和獨有的語法等級項目,最後呈現並解釋這樣的分布現象。

In this paper we compare grammatical items included in four syllabuses published in China for teaching Chinese as a second language. The four syllabuses are the Chinese Proficiency Scales and Graded Grammar Syllabus, Syllabus for Undergraduate Foreign Students of Chinese Language in Higher Education, Syllabus for Foreign Students in Higher Education (Long Term Chinese Program), and International Curriculum for Chinese Education. First, we list all the basic information, including scopes, applications, and interrelations. Then we evaluate and readjust these items as we compare them across the syllabuses. Second, investigating the diverse perspectives and statistics, we analyze their grading criteria, proficiency scales, as well as regulated items listed in various levels, and form a common list of grammatical items. In the final part we provide a reasonable account of item distribution.

  1. 臺灣學生與馬來西亞僑生於請求與拒絕行為之道歉語分析  陳梅影
    A Comparison of Apologetic Expressions in Requests and Refusals between Taiwanese Students and Malaysian Chinese Students by Mei-Ying Chen
  • 摘要
    本研究比較在臺灣之馬來西亞華裔學生(簡稱馬籍僑生)和臺灣學生於請求和拒絕兩種非道歉行為之道歉語選擇,以及社會地位對兩組學生使用道歉語的影響。研究發現臺灣學生與馬籍僑生道歉語的使用,依不同言語行為及聽話者社會地位,具有共通性。首先以道歉語類型來看,兩組學生無論於請求或拒絕行為,皆偏好「不好意思」,頻率皆最高。兩種言語行為相較,兩組學生於拒絕行為使用「不好意思」的頻率皆高於請求行為。此外,隨著交際對象之社會地位越高,道歉語的使用越頻繁,其中仍以「不好意思」最為活躍。可見「不好意思」具普遍適用性,較「對不起」受歡迎。換言之,本研究發現兩組學生雖來自不同的華語社區,道歉語的選擇明顯相似,皆傾向使用「不好意思」。最後,以道歉語總使用頻率來看,臺灣學生較馬籍僑生更容易使用道歉語,「不好意思」的使用也高於馬籍僑生。

This study investigated the selection of apologetic expressions between Taiwanese students and Malaysian Chinese students. An open-ended discourse completion test (DCT) was employed to collect both groups’ selection of apologetic expressions used in requests and refusals. The results showed that depending on the nature of speech acts and the listener’s social status, Taiwanese students and Malaysian Chinese students shared more similarities than differences in terms of the use of apology expressions. Of the four identified apologetic expressions, Bù hǎo yìsi (Excuse me) was the most used and followed by duì bù qǐ (I’m sorry) by both groups, indicating that Bù hǎo yìsi enjoyed more popularity than its counterpart duì bù qǐ did both in the speech act of the request and speech act of refusal. However, the uses of apologetic expression by both groups were more frequent in refusals than in requests. In addition, the higher the listener’s social status, the higher rate of occurrence of apologetic expressions. It was observed that both groups employed more apology expressions while in the situation of requesting or rejecting higher status, but not in the equal-status or lower-status situations. Finally, regarding the total number of occurrences, Taiwanese students employed more apologetic expressions than Malaysian Chinese students. Although both groups preferred Bù hǎo yìsi, it was observed that Taiwanese students selected more Bù hǎo yìsi than Malaysian Chinese students did.

  1. 體驗式教學法於初級商務華語教學中的應用  李欣欣
    Application of Experiential Learning Model in Fundamental Business Chinese Teaching by Cindy Hsin-Hsin Lee
  • 摘要
    本文係探討在初級商務華語教學中,採取體驗式教學法的教學過程與結果。體驗式教學法是緊密相連課堂內外各項學習活動,讓學生能實際運用、體驗專業知識、語言和技能的一種教學方式。本文透過行動研究法發現,在以聽說為主的初級商務華語課程中導入體驗式教學法可提升學習動機、活化傳統教學法、促進教材創意和跨文化認知,以及提升學生語用能力及學習成就感。但執行實務體驗教學活動,亦需有行政方面的配合,以降低執行時可能會產生的阻力。本案例的經驗也發現,確實執行體驗式教學法的三階段教學步驟,循序漸進地引導學生熟悉商業交易流程中所需的語言項目,可增強學生的語言信心和溝通能力,進而達到所設定的教學目標。最後本文針對商務華語教程提出建議,並歸結出實務體驗式教學進程,期能豐富商務華語教學法內涵。

Experiential learning connects students’ learning activities in class and their experience outside the class, allowing them to apply their professional knowledge, language and skills in real life. This study is an action research in which the instructor introduced experiential learning method and found that it could enhance students’ learning motivation, stimulate traditional teaching method and creativity in using the teaching material. In addition, it can increase students’ intercultural competence, communication ability and the sense of achievement in learning. Nevertheless, proper administration is crucial to avoid obstacles when implementing this teaching method. Following a three-stage procedure, which leads students to familiarize with the business language in stride, can improve students’ linguistic and communication competence so as to achieve the target teaching objectives. Finally, recommendations on fundamental business Chinese teaching method and curriculum are offered.

  1. 德國中文教學概況——海外視角下的師資培育  林欽惠
    Chinese language teaching in Germany: Looking at pre-service Chinese language teacher education from outside Taiwan by Chin-Hui Lin
  • 摘要
    目前國內關於華語文師資培育的研究多集中於教學理念、專業能力、課程模式等方面,從教師自身角度探討海外實習的研究相對較少,且多集中於亞洲地區。本文擬針對臺灣教師的海外實習情況提供另一種視角,對此一群體在德國大學教學時所遭遇的困難進行初步探索與分析。首先,本文將針對目前德國中小學以及大學的中文教學概況與師資組成情況進行介紹,接著就一項針對20位赴德國六所大學中文系/漢學系任教之臺灣實習教師的調查進行探討。根據調查結果,筆者建議未來臺灣的華語師資培育應加強跨文化交際能力、外語教學能力以及對中國的理解三方面的訓練。

Most previous studies on pre-service Chinese language teacher education in Taiwan focus on local training. They mostly discuss preservice teachers’ teaching belief, the development of professional skills, training program curriculum design, etc. In contrast, this study aims to provide a different perspective on pre-service Chinese language teacher education by exploring the actual working situation of pre-service Chinese teachers at German universities. In the first part, a general overview on Chinese language teaching in Germany will be offered. In the second part, we will explore the working situation of pre-service Chinese language teachers on the basis of a survey on 20 Taiwanese pre-service Chinese language teachers who did their internship at six German universities. The findings of this study suggest that three issues that have arguably received insufficient attention in discussions on pre-service teacher training in Taiwan: (1) the importance of intercultural communicative competence, (2) competences in using a foreign classroom language, (3) understanding of Mainland China (society, history, language use, etc.). These issues should receive more attention in Chinese language teacher training programs in Taiwan.

  1. L2 Acquisition of the Mandarin Modal Verb YAO by L1 English Speakers by Jen-I Li and Miao-Ling Hsieh
    英語母語者習得漢語能願動詞「要」之研究  李臻儀、謝妙玲
  • 摘要
    本研究檢視了漢語能願動詞「要」的語意特性,並分析了中央研究院平衡語料庫及一以線上寫作測驗方式收集語料所建構的中介語語料庫,以探討英語為母語之學習者習得「要」的情形。「要」的用法根據它的情態意義可分為三種類型:認知情態、參與者內部情態及參與者外部情態。本研究主要發現有二:(a)表參與者內部情態的「要」最常出現於二語語料中,其次為表參與者外部情態的「要」,使用頻率最低的為認知情態的「要」;此二語習得過程與一語習得過程及語法化的過程相符合。(b)表參與者內部情態的「要」之使用率隨著學習者的能力增加而降低,而表參與者外部情態的「要」之使用率則隨著學習者的能力增加而升高。本研究進一步將「要」的偏誤分為四種類型:遺漏、誤加、取代、錯序,並以分析結果為據提出教學上的啟示,結果顯示在教學實務上,母語對學習者的影響需加以注意,而學習者本身漢語知識的不足也會導致偏誤的發生。希冀本研究的發現及偏誤分析可以對以漢語為第二語言或外語的教學有所貢獻。

This paper examines the meanings of the modal verb yào in Mandarin Chinese as well as the acquisition of yào by L2 adult learners whose L1 was English, using data from the Academia Sinica corpus and a learner corpus. The modal meanings of yào were categorized into three types–epistemic, participant-internal, and participant-external. Major findings were: (a) the participant-internal yào was the most frequently used in the L2 data, followed by the participant-external yào and then the epistemic yào, which is consistent with the process of L1 acquisition and grammaticalization; (b) the rate of use of participant-internal yào decreased with the learners’ proficiency level while that of participant-external yào increased with proficiency level. Four types of errors, omission, addition, mis-selection and misordering, were analyzed. The analysis reveals that both the learners’ L1 and their having inadequate knowledge of Mandarin had important effect on their learning Mandarin as a second or foreign language.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十一期(2015.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 漢語「在」處所片語詞序在日文與韓文的對應  戴浩一
    Pre-verbal and Post-verbal Chinese Locative zai Phrases with Reference to Their Correspondences in Japanese and Korean by James H.-Y. Tai
  • 摘要
    漢語「在」處所片語置於動詞之前或之後的規則建立在一個有認知基礎的語意區分。在動詞之前的語意是指涉事件發生的地點;在動詞之後的語意上是指涉人或物的地點,特別是動作結果的地點。這個區別也呈現在日文格助詞で(DE)與に(NI)的對照以及韓文에서(esΛ)與에(e)的對照。這種簡明的區分有助於日本、韓國學生,以及其他國家學習者對漢語「在」處所片語詞序的學習。

The placement of Chinese zai locative phrases before or after the main verb is based on a cognition-based semantic distinction between the location of an event and the location of an entity, especially as a result of the action. This distinction is also exhibited as de/ni distinction in Japanese, and as esΛ/e in Korean. The distinction is therefore useful in teaching the word order of Chinese zai locative phrases to Japanese students, Korean students, and students from other countries.

  1. 現代漢語情態副詞的語用分析──以語料庫中的「其實」一詞論述  張莉萍
    The Usages of Epistemic Adverbs Based on Corpora: Exemplified by Li-Ping Chang
  • 摘要
    現代漢語情態副詞「其實」在對外漢語教材中的語義說明通常是以英語“actually, in fact, as a matter of fact”表示,一般把它當詞條處理,不多做說明或練習。然而只靠翻譯,對其他與之意義相近的副詞,如「事實上、實在、真的」的使用,學習者很容易產生混用。本研究先透過書面語、口語語料庫檢視「其實」在真實語料中的用法,藉著詞和詞之間橫向關係與上下文之間的縱向關係,提出「其實」的語義與語用分析,並以同樣方法分析幾個相近語義副詞的異同。本研究建議在教材中對這類副詞除了翻譯其語義外,也要有清楚的語用指引,以提高學習者對此類副詞的學習意識進而避免偏誤。

The epistemic adverbs like qishi ‘in fact’ in L2 Chinese textbooks are traditionally only listed as lexical items and translated as ‘actually, in fact, as a matter of fact’. However, they often caused learners’ confusion in usage of the near synonyms such as shishishang, shizai, and zhende. This study utilizes the syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations of the epistemic adverbs through oral as well as written corpora to analyze the semantic and pragmatic functions. It shows that there are two meanings for qishi. One use of it is to point out the fact. The other is to express something contrary to what is expected. In order to raise learners’ consciousness and to avoid errors, this study suggests in addition to the translation of lexical items, the pragmatic function of epistemic adverbs be listed in the textbook and practiced in instruction.

  1. 兩岸學者共同開發成語與典故知識庫的記憶  俞士汶、朱學鋒
    Building the Idiom and Allusion Knowledge Base–Memories of the Joint Efforts by Scholars on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait by Shi-Wen Yuand Xue-Feng Zhu
  • 摘要
    本文介紹臺灣學者羅鳳珠教授主持的國際合作研究計畫「歷代語言知識庫建置」的概貌。主持這個計畫,羅老師演奏了華彩生命的最後樂章。「漢語成語與典故知識庫」是該計畫取得的成果之一,其研製基礎是北京大學計算語言所研製的「漢語成語知識庫」和羅老師建置的「詩詞曲典故資料庫」。本文介紹連接這兩個知識庫以建置「漢語成語與典故知識庫」的技術路線、內容以及應用於成語教學的展示平臺(http://cls.hs.yzu.edu.tw/DLKB/Idiom_Index.aspx)。我們與羅老師在計算語言學與中國古典文學交叉領域的合作已歷時20餘年。在合作中,我們深切地感受到羅老師的博學、勤奮、嚴謹、善良、開朗、堅毅,羅老師的精神及其留下的豐碩研究成果永遠活在我們的心中。

This paper introduces the outline of an international research project – Building a Diachronic Language Knowledge-Base, which was directed by Prof. Fengju Lo of Yuan Ze University in Taiwan and was also the swan song of Prof. Lo’s colorful life. The Chinese Idiom- Allusion Knowledge Base is one of the achievements of this project. It is based on the Chinese Idiom Knowledge Base developed by the Institute of Computational Linguistics at Peking University and the Allusions Knowledge Base by Prof. Lo. In this paper, we introduce the technical guidelines on connecting the above two knowledge bases to build the Chinese Idiom-Allusion Knowledge Base, its content and its application to idiom teaching on a platform (http://cls.hs.yzu.edu.tw/DLKB/Idiom_Index.aspx). For more than twenty years, we have been working with Prof. Lo in an interdisciplinary field of computational linguistics and Chinese classical literature. Being our longtime and close collaborator, Prof. Lo impressed us deeply with her erudition, diligence, rigorousness, kindness, cheerfulness and perseverance, which, together with her fruitful research achievements, will stay with us forever and ever.

  1. 教學為導向的漢語多義動詞辨析──以「開」為例  歐德芬
    An Instruction-oriented Analysis of Chinese Polysemous Verbs–A Case Study of kai by Te-Fen Ou
  • 摘要
    漢語動詞存在許多多義詞。就教學的角度而言,漢語中兼具高詞頻與多義項的動詞實為華語教學的重點。由於漢語多義詞義項確認不易,而且不同詞類有不同的句法特徵,其多義詞義項區辨的方式或不相同。本文基於華語詞彙語義教學的目的,辨析高詞頻兼多義項動詞的獨立義項並提出教學建議,因而以原則性多義理論(Principled Polysemy)結合次義項理論(Sub-sense Units)為多義動詞義項分析平臺,亦即結合動詞語義和句法或搭配共現等特徵,來定義多義動詞的獨立義項,以期於教學現場得以應用。本研究從詞頻統計、辭典語義與華語教材等三個面向進行高詞頻兼高義項動詞的篩選,同時以符合篩選機制的動詞「開」,進行多義動詞獨立義項分析,最後應用教學語法理論設計階段性的教學步驟,提出多義詞不同義項的教學順序,供華語教材編寫及課堂教學參考。

Many Chinese verbs are polysemy. From the perspective of pedagogy, high-frequency and polysemous verbs should be the focus of Chinese instruction. However, the identification of the senses of Chinese polysemy is extremely complicated, since the methods of distinguishing the senses of each polysemy are not necessarily the same. This paper, for the purpose of teaching the meaning of Chinese vocabulary, intends to differentiate between the individual senses and pedagogical application of high-frequency and polysemous verbs with an analysis platform constructed by Principled Polysemy (Evans 2005) and Sub-sense Units (Croft and Cruse 2004). For the application of curricula, the study combines features, such as verb senses, syntax or collocations, to define the individual senses of polysemous verbs. Furthermore, this paper attempts to screen out high-frequency verbs and polysemous verbs with frequency statistics, dictionary meanings and Chinese teaching materials. In addition, the study analyzes the individual senses of polysemous verbs with the verb kai that satisfies the screening mechanism. Finally, the author applies the theories of pedagogical grammar of Chinese and proposes the orders and procedures to teach a variety of senses of polysemous verb kai for Chinese teaching materials and curriculum pedagogy.

  1. Linking Motivation in Learning Chinese with National Standards for Foreign Language Learning by Heng-Hua Su
    華語學習動因與外語教學標準之關聯探討 蘇珩驊
  • 摘要
    本文旨在探索華語學習者選修華語為第二外語的動因構成。研究對象為美國中西部某大型公立大學華語項目不同年級的學生。結合前人的研究,本文作者設計了調查問卷並創建了首個調查華語學習動因構成的綜合模型,對不同年級的學習者進行了比較,並探討了學習者的學習動因與美國外語教師協會所提出的外語學習標準之間的連結。基於研究所得,作者在文末對華語教師提出了有針對性地改進課程設置和調整教學方法的建議。

This study presents preliminary findings on various constructs of motivation in students studying Chinese at various levels in a large scale Chinese program at a Midwest university in the United States. An innovative combinational model consisting of key factors in the motivation construct is proposed to facilitate determining whether the goals put forth in the National Standards align with the motivation constructs that students have for the language learning. Similarities and differences across levels were also examined. Based on the results found, suggestions are made to assist Chinese program directors and instructors to develop their curriculum and implement effective pedagogical methods.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十期(2015.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 二語學習者仿寫對偶修辭格對其漢語作文影響分析  吳雙
    Effects of CS/FL Learners’ Imitating Chinese Antithesis Figure of Speech in their Writing by Shuang Wu
  • 摘要
    中國傳統和普遍的修辭形式對偶修辭格對於二語學習者而言,蘊含著強大的語言習得和生成功能,有助於二語學習者快速習得漢語字詞文句,而且在漢語作為第二語言教學的歷史上,對偶早就作為一種重要教學手段在國外長期應用,這是由於它有利於學習者有機構建和擴展漢語詞彙網路,說明學習者瞭解和掌握漢語短語的基本構造,從而能快速掌握漢語字詞並學會造句。為了瞭解二語學習者學習對偶修辭格的成效,我們設計了實驗,探索二語寫作教學過程中對偶修辭格的輸入對學習者漢語寫作品質的影響。實驗結果顯示,留學生仿寫的對偶句特點是,出現很多仿「蜂歌樹裡,蝶舞花前」的四字工對,很多不那麼嚴格的寬對,不少流水對,很多標準的「可字句」,一些抄寫或引用的對偶句,還有對偶句仿寫出現諸多偏誤。通過留學生在做完仿寫練習後寫出的作文,我們發現出現了對偶句,也出現了排比句和準排比句,還出現了不少書面語感濃郁的語句。通過對仿寫對偶修辭格過程的原理分析,對偶句仿寫產出過程可以分為構造階段、轉換階段、執行階段,體現出「話語的接受—話語的建構—話語的輸出」這一資訊加工處理流程的特點。最後,筆者建議教材及教學中可增設有意識的增字類仿寫練習,通過對漢語字詞句意與形式的習得,提高產出能力,並提高其用詞的準確性、語句的複雜性、流利性和地道性。

Antithesis figure of speech is the most traditional and common Chinese rhetorical device. Due to its productive generalization, it might help CS/FL (Chinese as a Second/Foreign Language) learners quickly acquire Chinese words, phrases and sentences. In the history of teaching CS/FL, antithesis figure of speech has been used for quite a long time in pedagogy, for it can facilitate learners’ constructing and enlarging semantic networks of vocabulary by mastering the internal structures of words, phrases and sentences. For the purpose of evaluating the learning effects of Chinese antithesis figure of speech, we conducted an experiment to investigate CSL learners’ production of antithesis couplets. Results show that through the treatment of teaching antithesis couplets as templates by asking the participants to imitate them, their writings had the following characteristics: (1) fourcharacter couplets such as feng ge shuli, die wu huaqian ‘Bees sing songs among trees and butterflies dance around flowers’, (2) not strict antithesis/duel couplets, (3) ke construction, and (4) errors in antithesis couplets. After the teaching treatment, in the learners’ compositions often appeared antithesis, parallel and quasi-parallel sentences. Based on the results, we argue that the production of antithesis couplets consists of perception, construction and output stages in information processing procedure. We also suggest that in order to increase CS/FL learners’ accuracy in using words, complexity in making sentences, and fluency and native-likeness in forming texts, teachers can raise their awareness of analyzing the meanings and forms of Chinese words by providing practices in imitation of antithesis couplets.

  1. 基於新加坡小學華文教材語料庫的語音負擔分析  羅慶銘
    Phonological Functional Load in Singapore Primary School Textbooks: A Corpus-based Analysis by Qing-Ming Luo
  • 摘要
    語音負擔是指某個語音單位(聲母、韻母、聲調、音節)在語音傳遞過程所承載的信息量,也叫音位功能負擔。教材語音負擔作為重要的語音量化指標,對漢語語音習得、語音要素的等級劃分以及語音教學內容的編排都會產生直接或間接的影響。本文利用新加坡小學華文教材語料庫結合數理統計原理對教材中包括聲母、韻母、聲調等語音構成要素進行語音負擔測算。結果顯示,漢語聲母、韻母和聲調的語音負擔不是平均的,總體上韻母的語音負擔最重,其次是聲母,聲調的語音負擔最輕。但從平均負擔量看,聲調的語音負擔卻最重;聲、韻、調內部子系統的語音負擔也存在較大差異。造成漢語語音負擔差異的原因主要是各語音構成要素在使用頻率上存在差異,頻率與語音負擔成正比。但頻率不是改變語音負擔的唯一因素,語音系統內部配置,語音單位元之間的對立或者互補關係也會直接影響二元對立的語音負擔。這些初步結論對漢語語音習得研究和教學研究都具有參考價值。

Phonological functional load refers to the amount of information carried by a phonetic unit (consonants, vowels, tones and syllables) in a phonological transmission process and is also called phoneme functional load. As an important phonological quantification indicator, textbook phonological load has a direct or indirect impact on Chinese phonetic acquisition, classification of phonetic elements, and the content arrangement of phonetics teaching. Applying statistical principles to the Singapore primary school Chinese textbook corpus, this paper seeks to compute the phonological load of the textbook phonetic constituent elements, including consonants, vowels, and tones. Results indicate that the phonological load of Chinese consonants, vowels and tones is uneven. Vowels in general have the highest phonological load, followed by consonants, with tones having the lowest phonological load. However, an examination from the point of view of average load reveals that tones command the highest phonological load, with a greater difference in the phonological load of the internal subsystems of consonants, vowels and tones. The main cause for the difference in Chinese phonological load lies in a difference in the usage frequency of various phonetic constituent elements, with frequency being proportional to phonological load. However, frequency is not the sole factor that changes phonological load. The internal configuration of phonetic systems and the opposing or complimentary relationship between phonetic units would also directly affect the phonological load of binary oppositions. These preliminary conclusions are of reference value to the research and pedagogy of phonetic acquisition of Chinese as a second language.

  1. 以觀音靈籤作為華語閱讀教材及其教學設計  胡文菊、汪娟
    Developing a Reading Material Based on Kuan Yin Temple Oracle for Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language by Wen-Chu Hu and Chuan Wang
  • 摘要
    古代漢語蘊藏著豐富的中華文化寶藏,然而文言漢語常被一般人視為是死亡的語言,尤其在以華語為第二語言的教學領域裡,教材多以白話文為大宗,文言常常未得到太多的關注。對於此種現象學者們也提出了不同的看法。文言的遣詞用字洗鍊優美,適當的學習可以提升學習者的修辭知識、成語知識,更能帶領學習者一窺中華文化的精髓,領略漢語語言文化之美。我們選擇觀音靈籤作為中高級對外漢語閱讀教材的理由如下:第一,籤詩帶有謎樣的色彩,許多外籍人士對東方的求籤文化感到好奇,如果將這股好奇心結合華語學習,將是一莫大的學習助力。第二,觀音靈籤雖屬於文言漢語較為深奧難懂,但其中含藏了許多現代漢語常用的成語或習慣語,若熟悉這些詞語,學習者的語文程度將提升至另一個更高的階段。第三,一些研究顯示,學習者對於故事性的教材最感興趣。在每一首觀音靈籤的籤題背後都有一個歷史故事典故,因此學習起來饒富趣味,也能加深學習者的記憶與文化知識。此文首先探討文言漢語的教學策略,以及文言在華語文教學中應有的地位與重要性。其次本文分享如何將觀音靈籤改編成生活化華語學習教材,文中陳述此教材編輯時所依循的原則以及教材特色,並介紹此教材的內容編排,包括研究場域龍山寺簡介、入寺廟參拜的規矩、求籤的程序、籤詩體例與籤題背景故事等。文末更依據教學設計原理對此教材進行教學方法與教學活動的設計,希冀此研究能在華語文言教學與文化教學領域提供些許貢獻。

When people are perplexed with some questions in their life, one of the Asian/Chinese ways of approaching the problem is to seek guidance from Gods or Goddesses through temple divination. The oracle/poetry that one gets from the temple is the God/Goddess’ answer to his/her question. In Taiwan, Long Shan Temple is one of the must-visit attractions for many foreigners and Kuan Yin Oracle Board is used there. Temple divination is a mysterious ritual for many foreigners. Temple oracle therefore, we think, might become interesting and authentic reading material for Chinese language learners. Kuan Yin Temple Oracle is widely used in Chinese temples in different countries and it has a hundred poems written in classical Chinese. In this research, we firstly study the origin, the function and the structure of Kuan Yin Temple Oracle. We also review the literature on strategies of teaching classical text with the discussion of its role in teaching Chinese as a foreign language. We then list our guiding principles and methods of developing the Kuan Yin Oracle reading material tailored for foreign learners of Chinese. Finally, we try to design the teaching strategies for this special reading material, including several task-based learning activities. Suggestions for future research and practice are also provided.

  1. 探討《新版實用視聽華語》與「華測八千詞」選用詞語之異同  石伊婷、陳浩然、李維潔、楊惠媚
    A Study of the Vocabulary Items Used in Practical “Audio-Visual Chinese” and “TOCFL Chinese 8,000 Vocabulary” by Francess Yi-Ting Shih, Howard Hao-Jan Chen, Wei-Jie Lee, and Hui-Mei Yang
  • 摘要
    臺灣國家華語測驗推動工作委員會考試報告指出,無論報考華語文能力測驗(TOCFL)哪個級別的考生,多以《新版實用視聽華語》(以下簡稱《視華》)系列為主要教材。此表示教材內容影響著學生的學習狀況及TOCFL考試上的表現。有鑒於《視華》所涵蓋的詞語與TOCFL考試不同級別所需具備的詞語在過去並未經詳細探討,本研究藉由比較及分析兩者之間的詞語異同處得到了以下幾項發現:(1)兩者之間有3,693筆相同的詞語,有2,085筆《視華》詞語不在TOCFL詞表中,而有3,776筆TOCFL詞語未納入於《視華》中。(2)兩詞表的收詞原則不同,各具其選詞特色。(3)《視華》中具有較多臺灣特色的詞語。(4)TOCFL詞表「兒化」詞的數量高於《視華》。本研究進一步自《視華》未納入TOCFL詞表的2,085詞中,取得314筆高頻詞作為對TOCFL的建議詞表,也從TOCFL未收錄至《視華》的3,776詞中選取前三級的289筆詞作為對《視華》的建議詞語。期望本研究結果及建議可提供華語學習者、教師和教材與測驗編寫人員以及考試單位作為參考。

According to the report of The Steering Committee for the Test Of Proficiency-Huayu (SC-TOP), most of CSL (Chinese as a Second Language) learners in Taiwan taking The Test of Chinese as a Foreign Language (TOCFL) use "Practical Audio-Visual Chinese" series as the primary learning material. Thus, the content and vocabulary in the series have a clear impact on CSL learners’ learning and on their test performance. However, very few studies focused on comparing the vocabulary used in "Practical Audio-Visual Chinese" (PAVC wordlist) with "Chinese 8,000 Vocabulary" (TOCFL wordlist). In this study, we compared the vocabulary in the PAVC series of textbooks and TOCFL wordlist and found: (1) 3,693 words are shared by both PAVC and TOCFL wordlists, while 2,085 words in PAVC are not covered in TOCFL list. And TOCFL has 3,776 words that are not found in PAVC. (2) The criteria for selecting words in PAVC wordlist are different from those in TOCFL wordlist. (3) The PAVC contains more vocabulary items related to Taiwan features than TOCFL wordlist does. (4) The TOCFL wordlist contains a larger number of -er words than the PAVC does. Based on the results of comparison, we suggested that 314 high-frequency words in the PAVC could be included in TOCFL wordlist, and 289 words from the TOCFL wordlist could be incorporated into the PAVC. The findings of this study can serve as a useful reference for Chinese learners, teachers, textbook compilers, and language test agencies.

  1. Effect of Home Language on the Chinese Lexical Ability of 6-year-old Singaporean Children by Puah Lynn Dee and Tan Chee Lay
    家庭言語環境對新加坡6歲華族兒童詞彙能力的影響  潘霖妮、陳志銳
  • 摘要
    新加坡以英語為主要家庭用語的華族家庭有逐年上升的趨勢。為了更好地瞭解新加坡兒童的華語能力和語言使用情況,新加坡華文教研中心展開為期兩年的研究─《新加坡華族兒童語言環境及語言使用調查》。研究項取樣自新加坡學前中心,共有1,233名6歲兒童的父母參與問卷調查,當中372名兒童參加了圖片描述測試和認字測試。本文旨在探討家庭語言環境對新加坡6歲華族兒童詞彙能力的影響。本文選取了11名來自雙薪家庭、除幼稚園老師外無其他照顧者的兒童,並將它們分為三組─以華語為主要家庭用語、以華語及英語為主要家庭用語和以英語為主要家庭用語。兒童圖片描述測試的視頻或音頻,以CHAT模式轉寫,並以CLAN系統分析其詞頻、詞種、和平均句長。研究結果顯示,三組來自不同語言背景的11名新加坡華族6歲兒童的詞彙能力,在詞頻上沒有顯著區別,但是家庭用語對詞種和平均句長有顯著影響,功能詞的缺失,使得他們難以將所習得的詞彙組詞成句。

With English language dominating social use in Singapore, there is a rising trend of English being the dominant home language in local Chinese families. To better understand children’s Chinese language ability and their language exposure, the Singapore Centre for Chinese Language conducted a 2-year research project entitled "An Investigation of Singaporean Chinese Preschoolers’ Language Use & Exposure". A total of 1,233 parents of Kindergarten 2 children (aged 6) participated in a survey, and 372 children of these 1,233 parents subsequently participated in a picture description and a character recognition test. This paper aims to examine the effect of home language on the Chinese lexical ability of 6-year-old Singaporean Chinese children. Eleven children from dual income family were selected and divided into three home language groups: CHL (Chinese as main home language), CEHL (Chinese and English as main home languages) and EHL (English as main home language). Video- and audio-recordings were transcribed by using CHAT transcription. Word types, word tokens and mean length of utterance were analyzed by CLAN program. Two-way ANOVA analyses with home language and gender as independent variables were performed separately on word types, word tokens and mean length of utterance. The results reveal that lexical ability of the 11 6-year-old Chinese children has no significant difference across three home language groups in terms of the lexicon acquired. However, home language has significant effect on word type and mean length of utterance. The lack of function words causes them problems in putting words together.