《臺灣華語教學研究》總第七期(2013.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 學語言學到了什麼?-從語言的多面向樣貌探討語言教學的新路徑 陳振宇
    What do We Acquire when We Acquire a Language? Implications for Language Learning and Coaching by Jenn-Yeu Chen
  • 摘要
    我們拿握紙杯子和陶瓷杯子的方式不會相同,這是因為兩者的樣貌與構造不同的緣故。如果把語言想像成一種物體,那麼我們認為這是一個什麼樣的物體,也會影響我們如何攫取掌握它。換句話說,我們問如何習得語言之前,要先思考語言是什麼。現有的語言習得理論都有其假定的語言樣貌。本文從八個面向探討語言的樣貌,及其對應的語言習得理論。然後嘗試加以歸納整合出一個比較合乎人類生態的語言習得觀點,本文借用Atkinson(2011)提出的名稱,稱之為社會認知取向。這個觀點對語言教學提出了新的路徑,可供教學者思考與研究新的教學方案。

The way we grasp a paper cup necessarily differ from the way we grasp a mug or a glass. This is because the two types of container have different shapes and structures and these affect how we handle them. If we metaphorically think of a language as an object with a predictable shape and structure, we must handle (use) different languages differently. In terms of language acquisition or learning, this means that we need to determine ahead of time what we think a language is before exploring how to acquire it. Theories of second language acquisition all presume a specific answer of what a language is. In this paper, I discuss eight different facets of a language and their related SLA theories. I also try to synthesize these different views and propose an ecological approach to SLA, which I call the Sociocognitive Approach, borrowing from Atkinson’s (2011) recent proposal. The sociocognitive approach offers a possibility for designing new programs of second language learning.

  1. 漢語成語及典故知識庫在語文學習中的應用  俞士汶、羅鳳珠、朱學鋒、王雷、常寶寶、砂岡和子、姜柄圭
    The Application of Chinese Idiom and Allusion Knowledge Base in Learning Chinese by Shi-Wen Yu, Feng-Ju Lo, Xue-Feng Zhu, Lei Wang, Bao-Bao Chang, Kazuko Sunaoka, Byeong-Kwu Kang
  • 摘要
    無論人的語言能力的提升,還是機器的語言能力的提升都需要語言知識庫的支援。北京大學計算語言學研究所研製的漢語成語知識庫和元智大學羅鳳珠建置的詩詞曲典故知識庫,都是為提升人和機器的語言能力服務的。在知識庫達到一定規模之後,希望能應用知識庫的特性,引用「一詞泛讀」、「觸類旁通」及「延伸學習」的理念,設計學習功能,以應用在語文學習上。本文延續〈分階多語成語典故知識庫教學設計〉一文,更深入的以漢語成語及典故知識庫為例,詳細地介紹內容、建構理念和發展歷程。以及成語知識庫同典故知識庫連接之後,如何使語言學習提升到文學作品學習的層次,並使兩個知識庫相得益彰。

In order to enhance the language ability of both humans and computers, we need the support of language knowledge bases. The Chinese Idiom Knowledge Base(CIKB) developed by the Institute of Computational Linguistics at Peking University and the Allusion Knowledge Base of Chinese Poetry built by Lo Fengju at Yuan Ze University are both constructed for this purpose. With a corpus built to a certain scale and the aid from a language knowledge base, we hope to introduce the concepts of "extensive reading from a single word", "grasping the whole category with a typical example" and "extended learning" and design frameworks applicable to Chinese learning. As a sequel to "A Phase-based Design of Multilingual Idiom-allusion Knowledge Base for Teaching", this paper introduces in detail the content, construction ideas and development process of the two knowledge bases by taking CIKB and the allusion knowledge base as further examples. The connection of CIKB with the allusion knowledge base makes the two knowledge bases complement each other and improve Chinese language learning to the level of literature learning.

  1. 華裔學習者跨文化族群認同及其傳承語習得研究  王建勤
    Chinese Heritage Language Learners’ Transcultural Ethnic Identity and Heritage Language Acquisition by Jian-Qin Wang
  • 摘要
    本研究擬從兩個方面來探討華裔學習者的族群認同與習得問題:一是華裔學習者如何面對雙向族群認同,採取哪些認同策略;二是華裔學習者不同認同傾向和策略對其傳承語習得產生哪些影響。研究結果表明,華裔學習者由於所在國的社會文化環境及其傳承語教育的政策不同而採取了三種不同類型的認同策略,即「適應策略」、「保留策略」和「同化策略」;此外,華裔學習者雙向族群認同策略對其傳承語的習得與保持的影響是潛在的、間接的,高認同不一定帶來傳承語習得的高水準。針對華裔學習者雙向族群認同的兩難選擇問題,本文提出了「跨文化族群認同」的第三選擇,並針對華裔學習者傳承語習得的現狀提出了可供參考的教學建議。

This paper explores Chinese heritage language learners’ ethnic identity and heritage language acquisition from two aspects. One is that how the learners deal with the bidirectional ethnic identity and what strategies they adopt in face of the dilemma. Another is that how the learners’ strategies of the ethnic identity influence their heritage language acquisition. The results show that the learners adopt different sorts of strategies, e.g. adaptive strategy, preserved strategy, and assimilative strategy. In addition, the learners’ strategies have potential and indirect influences on their heritage language acquisition and maintenance. Therefore, the learner’s high level ethnic identity does not necessarily lead to high level proficiency of his heritage language. Hence, to solve the dilemma of the learners’ bidirectional ethnic identity, this paper proposes the third choice for the learners, i.e. "transcultural ethnic identity". Moreover, some teaching suggestions for Chinese heritage language learners’ heritage language acquisition are provided.

  1. 華語學習者電腦寫作考試中「把」字後賓語間接回指的情形  陳怡靜、廖才儀
    The Use of BA-NP as an Indirect Anaphor in TOCFL Written Tests by Yi-Jing Chen and Tsai-Yi Liao
  • 摘要
    「把」字句用來表徵有界事件中某物如何受到影響,以致發生變化後進入另一種狀態。變化發生前「把」所標記的物體已經存在,「把」字後賓語通常為定指,為已知訊息。在華語學習者電腦寫作考試語料庫中發現不少華語學習者在寫作測驗中將首次出現的事物視為已知訊息,用「把」字標記。本文發現這些「把」字後賓語指涉的對象需要透過前文某個指涉對象來解讀,這種現象稱為間接回指。本文將藉認知參照點原則與認知轉喻闡釋學習者使用「把」字句間接回指,銜接上下文時的心智過程。

Ba-construction is used to express how an object in a bounded event is affected, then undergoing a change of state. Before the change of state, the NP marked by ba has already existed in the discourse and its reference is usually definite, known as presupposed information. In TOCFL learner corpus, there are many CSL learners who mark a newly-introduced referent as old information with ba in their writing test. We found that the reference of the ba-NP could be interpreted through a certain referent which appears in the preceding discourse. The coherence in their writing is achieved by the indirect anaphora. This paper is expected to find out how the ba-NP is used as an indirect anaphor in terms of cognitive reference point (Langacker 1993, 2000, 2008) and cognitive metonymy (Lakoff and Johnson 1980).

  1. 從大學校園飲食看華語教材的飲食用語安排  巫宜靜
    A Pedagogical Evaluation of Dining Terms in Chinese Teaching Materials on University Campus by Yi-Ching Wu
  • 摘要
    為改善華語教材並協助學習者,本文探究來台就讀的外籍學習者,在大學校園內飲食時所需的用語,以及可能的語言困難點。以銘傳大學桃園龜山校區內的二十家餐飲店為觀察標的,觀察外籍學習者在校園內用餐時可能所需的飲食用語,以及對外華語教材中對飲食情境和用語的安排,並且以「華語八千詞」詞表為詞彙等級區分的參考,分析飲食用語的詞彙等級。本文發現校園內用餐可能的六類飲食用語中,一般華語教材多含第一類菜單用語、第三類買賣雙方的溝通用語、第四類顧客與服務員之間的問答語、第六類對餐飲的評論語,而較少第二類店家廣告用語,及第四類用餐環境的引導語類,且一般華語教材裡的第一類菜單用語較為簡單。各類用語的詞彙,均含不少流利級詞彙,以及未出現在「華語八千詞」詞表中的詞彙。在所蒐集到432個菜單項目詞彙中,約有347個(80.3%)未列於該詞表中。對於華語能力未達流利級以上的學生,易產生語言理解的困難。兩岸語言差異也呈現在飲食用語中,也可能造成語言難點。菜單中食品名稱無法直接得知成品、食材成分,或者不當的英文翻譯,都可能使外籍學習者無法理解而產生困難。本文建議華語教學應加強目前教材中對飲食用語不足之處,且應針對飲食用語編纂教材或學材,以協助外籍學習者順利達成飲食的任務。

To improve Chinese teaching materials and help learners, this study probes into the dining terms used on university campuses and the potential linguistic difficulties they cause for foreign learners of Chinese. The dining terms were collected from the twenty restaurants located on the Taoyuan campus of Ming Chuan University. The lexical levels of the words defined as dining terms were analyzed based on the List of 8,000 Chinese Words. This study shows that of the six types of ding terms, Types (a) menu terms, (c) communicational expressions between buyers and sellers, (e) dialogues involving customers and restaurant wait staff, and (f) comments from customers about the food and beverages they purchase and consume, are typically included in Chinese teaching materials, but Types (b) advertisement terms and (d) terms related to environmental guidance are not. Type (a) menu terms in general Chinese teaching materials are simpler than those used on the campus. Each of the six types comprises numerous advanced TOCFL Level 5 words and those that were not included in the List of 8,000 Chinese Words. Of the 432 words collected from the menu items, 347 (80.3%) were not included in the word list. This deficiency may cause language comprehension difficulties for students who are not at or above Level 5. The dining terms also demonstrated linguistic differences between Taiwan and Mainland China, which may cause language difficulties. Reading comprehension problems may arise when the name of the food and beverage on a menu shows no direct relation to ingredients. Learners may also be confused by improper English translations of Chinese terms and menu items and encounter comprehension difficulties when examining the menu contents. The flaws in dining terms used in Chinese language teaching materials should be ameliorated, and additional teaching and self-learning materials targeted dining terms should be developed, allowing foreign learners to accomplish food-related tasks.

  1. Corpus-driven Creation of a Reliable Learner’s Vocabulary forClassical Chinese by Tilman Schalmey
    憑藉語料分析制定古代漢語「可靠」詞彙表  夏逖曼
  • 摘要
    古代漢語教材大多沒有現代漢語教材、拉丁文教材以及其他古代語言教材的水平與先進的教學法。此外,從統計方面觀察時,使用現有的古代漢語教材的學生要學習使用的詞彙似乎並非以實踐為導向。這是因為詞彙選擇以課文的選擇為主,並不以生詞的使用為主。同時,課本詞彙數量之大、解釋之繁瑣會令人望而止步。筆者計畫憑藉自己的教學經驗,以現代、高效、可靠、便於掌握的詞彙和語法為框架,為外國漢學學生編寫一本新的古代漢語教材。為此,有必要定義分析古代漢語字符頻率的框架。鑒於上述目的,中文「古代漢語」一詞定義為春秋戰國到漢末之書面語。此論文說明編寫這個時期的代表性的語料的標準,並討論語料內容與篇幅。Michael Loewe先生於1993年出版的參考書目Early Chinese Texts中介紹的六十四個文本可以作為一個適合漢學學生的代表性語料 。此語料總共約四百萬字,用字一萬兩千五百四十六。通過運行 PERL 字符頻率分析腳本可以發現:認識六百個常用字的人大約能夠看懂「古代漢語」的百分之八十。也就是說,學 一千一百零五個字能使學生讀懂先秦兩漢文章的百分之九十。論文結尾處附有語料原文列表以及字符頻率分析字數表。

The quality of teaching materials for Classical Chinese often lags behind that of teaching materials available for modern vernacular Chinese, more widely studied ancient languages like Latin and also behind current developments in didactics. At the same time, the learner’s vocabulary of a textbook can be a deterrent because of its sheer volume and the way it is presented and organized. The author plans to compile a new Classical Chinese textbook for students of Sinology, based on his teaching experiences and an efficient, reliable learner’s vocabulary as well as a grammatical analysis presented in a modern, student-friendly way. To do so, it is necessary first to define the framework for a character frequency analysis of the classical Chinese language. The term Classical Chinese is defined for this purpose as the written language of the time from the Spring and Autumn period until the end of the Han dynasty. The criteria used to compile a representative corpus for this period are summarized, discussing the considerations about content and size of the corpus. The 64 texts presented in Michael Loewe’s Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide (1993) are found to be a representative corpus for students of Sinology. The corpus thus created consists of a total of around four million characters, containing 12,546 tokens. By running a PERL script character frequency analysis of the corpus, it is found that by learning only the 600 most common characters, a "Classical Chinese" text coverage of 80 % can be reached. A number of 1,105 most common characters would make for an adequate working vocabulary, enabling students to read 90 % of an Ancient Chinese text. The tables contain a list of the corpus source texts and the detailed word counts of the frequency analysis itself.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第六期(2013.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 分階多語成語典故知識庫教學設計 羅鳳珠、砂岡和子、姜柄圭、俞士汶、王雷、常寶寶
    A Phase-based Design of Multilingual Idiom-allusion Knowledge Base for Teaching by Feng-Ju Lo, Kazuko Sunaok, Byeong-Kwu Kang, Shi-Wen Yu, Lei Wang, and Bao-Bao Chang
  • 摘要
    成語與典故是非常特殊的漢語語言形式,具有生動簡潔、形象鮮明、寓意深刻的特點。成語與典故的語義豐富,典雅蘊藉,蘊藏著中國幾千年的歷史文化與人文發展脈絡,影響及於鄰國,是亞洲漢字文化圈珍貴的文化遺產。本文旨在探討如何建構一個內容完整豐富的成語典故知識庫,再以分階多語的方式,期以達到:一、透過所建置的成語知識內容,理解成語的含義與用法;二、透過成語與典故對應的機制,以成語學習為立基點,兼及學會與該成語相關的典故;三、透過英、日、韓語的成語翻譯,降低母語非漢語的學習者學習的門檻;四、從成語典故之出處內容,將學習深入到中國歷史文化的深層脈絡;五、從例句學習成語與典故之使用方法,並擴充到文學典籍閱讀及歷史文化探索等教學策略。

Idioms and allusions are unique in Chinese language for their vividness, conciseness and enlightening morals. Profound in meaning, elegant, and they thread through Chinese history culture and humanity development for thousands of years, which has exerted an influence throughout neighboring countries and serves as a precious legacy around the Asian character-based cultural circle. This paper aims to explore the methods of constructing a complete knowledge base for Chinese idioms and allusions on a phase and multilingual basis. Our goal is: 1. to understand the meaning and usage of the idiom with a full knowledge of the idiom obtained from the base; 2. to learn allusions related to a certain idiom on the basis of mapping the idiom and the allusions; 3. to help non-native Chinese learners with English, Korean and Japanese translations; 4. to further study Chinese history and culture with the source information of idioms and allusions; 5. to expand the scope to pedagogic methodology for literary classics reading and the study of history and culture by usage examples of idioms and allusions.

  1. 漢越成語對比分析及其教學建議  王季香、阮黃英
    A Contrastive Analysis of Chinese and Vietnamese Idioms and Teaching Suggestions by Chi-Hsiang Wang, Hoang-Anh Nguyen
  • 摘要
    越南的成語有些是原生的,也有些是從漢語引進的。越語中源於漢語的成語語源雖一致,但隨著語言與社會現實交際需要的語境互動、共構,語形、語義和語用會跟著移轉或重構,或借形賦義、借形衍義、音義化形等,遂產生了語意範圍的變化、褒貶色彩的轉化或詞語的重構等。目前學界關於漢語成語和越南的漢源成語的對比研究不少,如語義對比、結構對比、文化對比等,但對比較結果的解釋及將之運用於越南漢語教學的研究還有待挖掘。成語教學可以激發學生瞭解歷史的熱情,並提高閱讀寫作能力,然因各民族文化背景的殊異,學習者容易產生偏誤。本文針對越南漢源成語中詞頻較高的語料,一方面通過對比分析的角度,探析漢語和越語成語在跨文化交流時的特點及差異,一方面經由調查蒐集了解學生語用偏誤的情形,並希望能藉由研析的結果,可運用在越南華語文他教材編輯上,同時提出相關的華語教學建議。

Some Vietnamese idioms are of Vietnamese origin, but some others came from Chinese. Those originated from Chinese might have changed in form and meaning because of requirements in social communication. Their forms, vivid images, and range of meanings reflect the diverse cultures. Due to the structural differences in the two languages, their forms of idioms may vary. For example, Chinese idioms have been called ”the living fossil” for their profound historical and cultural implications and the unique, fixed forms of phrases. At present, there are certain contrastive studies in the idioms between Vietnamese and Chinese in the academic circles, such as semantic, structural, and culture contrasts. However, our study takes a further aim at exploring how to interpret and apply those findings to Chinese pedagogy. Idiom teaching can stimulate students’ enthusiasm in understanding history and improve their reading/writing abilities. On the other hand, influenced by their own cultural backgrounds, foreign learners are more likely to make errors while learning idioms. Based on the perspective of contrastive analysis, we collected and analyzed those errors frequently made by students. We thereby propose suggestions on the teaching materials editing and pedagogical application.

  1. 中國大陸對外漢語寫作教學研究的回顧與展望  郭利霞
    Composition in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language on Mainland China: A Review and Future Prospects by Li-Xia Guo
  • 摘要
    隨著2007年初中級HSK加人作文測試,對外漢語寫作教學和研究的重要性日益凸顯。相關研究持續升溫,且不斷向縱深發展,寫作教學正在成為對外漢語教學研究的熱點之一。本文對中國大陸對外漢語寫作教學的研究現狀、教材建設及教學法進行了回顧,總結了成績和不足,並提出了今後可開展或深入的若干研究課題。

Writing Test has been a part of HSK at Elementary and Intermediate Levels since 2007. As a result, teaching and studying of TCASL (Teaching Chinese as a Second Language) writing appeared more and more important. TCASL studies have been focusing on problems corelated with writing in the recent years. This paper reviews the TCASL writing teaching and study in following aspects: textbook compiling, current studies and studies in pedagogics. More researches are needed to address these questions.

  1. 漢日漢字的關聯性與日本學習者的漢語詞彙再認  滕小春
    The Association between Characters in the Chinese and Japanese Languages, and Japanese Learners’ Acquisition of Chinese Words by Xiao-Chun Teng
  • 摘要
    與母語相似的第二語言習得的難易問題一直是一個時有爭論的話題。其中有與母語相似的目的語容易習得的觀點,同時也有認為與母語相似的目的語有時反而更加難習得的觀點。兩種不同觀點的產生可能是因為語言之間的相似性表現在很多複雜而不同的方面所引起的。相似性所表現的具體方面不同或許會決定對二語習得所產生影響的正負性,或許因此而造成了學者的爭論。那麼我們在沒有完全確認目的語與母語之間的相似性對某語言習得的具體方面影響如何時,就需要對所要考察的該具體方面的習得情況進行實證後才可做出結論。日語和漢語都有漢字,它們之間具有很多關聯性,所以我們說到漢日兩種語言之間的相似性其實大多數情況下是指它們之間的這種關聯性。那麼該關聯性對日本學習者的漢語習得有沒有正面的影響呢?本文不是考察日語整體習得上的影響,而是對其中的學習者在漢語詞彙的習得上的影響。而本文又將詞彙習得上的影響更加具體到詞彙再認方面的影響。通過對日本大學一年級學生的漢語期末考試的解答進行了具體調查,然後從認知心理的角度做了深入的分析。我們的結論是漢日兩種語言漢字之間的關聯性越強,對學習者的詞彙再認就越有幫助。另外,本文也對日本學習者在漢語詞彙再認時容易犯錯的幾種典型的認知機制進行了考察。

Is it easy to learn a second language which is similar to one’s native language? The controversy surrounding this theme is probably attributable to the specific similarities and differences embodied in the languages. It is probable that the effects depend on which parts of the languages are being discussed. In any case, it is necessary to do an empirical investigation on learners’ attitudes regarding similarities between a foreign language and their own. The similarity between Chinese and Japanese is mainly embodied in the fact that both languages use logographic characters. Although Chinese characters are not completely the same as those in Japanese, the cognitive associations are often close. This study investigated if these associations help Japanese learners (college freshmen in this study) recognize Chinese vocabulary. Through two surveys, this study empirically found that associations between characters in the two languages positively affect the learners in recognizing as well as understanding vocabulary. The study also analyzed cognitive reasons why Japanese learners cannot recognize some Chinese words.

  1. The Efficacy of Teacher Development in a STARTALK Residential Program by Miao-Fen Tseng
    星談中文師資培訓計畫的效能 曾妙芬
  • 摘要
    此篇論文旨在研究美國維吉尼亞大學星談中文教師項目的有效性。維大自2008年開始至今,每年皆獲得美國政府國會經費,開設研究所中文教學法3至5學分的課程,招收全國15位中文教師,進行為期三周的密集強化訓練。培訓方式採用課堂與網上教學兩種模式,理論與課堂實踐並重,內容包括第二語言習得與中文教學法,諸如如何融人五大外語教學目標,設計以學生為中心的課程,選用文化豐富的真實語料,運用電腦科技輔助教學,進行表現式的評量方式等等。此課程採用各種不同的評量方式,針對每位教師的個別差異,進行追蹤輔導,從正確教學觀念的培養到教學行為的改變,皆兼顧團體及個別教師的需要。其評量方式包括項參加項目前後的自我評量檢測表,網上討論,網上意見調查,教學實習表現,每天自我評量與總評量,課堂參與作業的完成,網上專業教學檔案的建立。此篇論文研究方法質與量兩者並重,側重教師參與此課程計畫前後在教學觀念及課堂實踐應用方面的差異性。研究顯示,教師於培訓課程完成時,在教學理念課堂實踐方面都有顯著的成長與進步。

This paper investigates the efficacy of teacher development through a teacher residential program funded by the US federal STARTALK grant since 2008. It documents the professional development of fifteen Chinese language teachers in a three-week intensive training program. The program integrates a balance of theories and practice into the curriculum through a well-structured and supervised practicum. Upon the completion of the three- or five-credit graduate course, teachers are able to keep abreast of new developments in second language acquisition theories and practice in general, particularly in Chinese language acquisition and pedagogy. Through the program practicum, they also create standards-based curricula and materials, deliver effective instruction, and implement authentic performance-based assessment and instructional technology in a learner-centered, highly communicative and interactive environment. The program features both face-to-face instruction and online training. A variety of assessments are employed to keep track of the achievements of curricular and instructional goals and the participants’ progress toward newly gained knowledge and skills. The data collected from the pre-program and post-program self-assessment checklists reveal that participants showed noticeable progress in required skills and knowledge needed for professional enhancement. The study concludes that by the end of the program, the teacher participants had experienced significant conceptual and behavioral change through teaching Chinese as a foreign language.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第五期(2012.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 華語語言文化認知教學:結合概念結構進行租房活動練習  曾金金
    Language, Culture, and Cognitive Approach to TCSL: Introducing Conceptual Structure of Renting a Place to Pre-Task Activities by Chin-Chin Tseng
  • 摘要
    本文主要以事件概念架構鞏固第二語言聽說能力,搭配三種溝通模式,提供學習者針對性的練習、回饋與評估,結合形音識記與意義識記,提供實用信息並教導學習者如何使用特定句型獲取信息,並能進行有效得體的回應。本文以租房概念結構之語言與文化分析,設計模擬租房任務前活動練習,練習的部分著重在聽力及口語溝通能力的訓練,整體設計關注記憶與第二語言學習的關連。概念結構可協助第二語言學習者把短期記憶中的信息組成有意義的單位,有利於將信息轉存為長期記憶。第二語言口說能力與運動記憶相關,口說能力的培養需要相關信息呈現一定的強度和重複,未來希望透過在不同情境強化同一句型,協助學習者將短期記憶有效轉化為長期記憶。

In this paper, the framework of mental structure (Jackendoff 2007) is used for facilitating second language listening and speaking training. With three modes of communication, learners can work on activities which suit their needs and their language proficiency level. Combined with visual stimulus, audio sound play and meaningful learning materials which are organized into a mental conceptual structure. The analysis of the conceptual structure bringing language and culture information to the learners in a full picture. Learners can understand the renting event, containing what information structures, and what sentence patterns and vocabulary are required when expressing a certain concept. The overall design not only concern the listening and speaking activities, but also the information processing (both comprehension and expression) to second language learning.Conceptual structure can help second language learners gain meaningful units of information to store in their short-term memory. After reinforcement and repetition, information can be encoded in long-term memory. Second language speaking ability is related to motor memory, to be able to speak fluently, learners requires a great amount of meaningful practices. Practicing the same sentence pattern in different contexts and employing the memory method for music recital, one can memorize dialogues in a similar way.

  1. 商務華語教材詞彙研析:師培需求暨觀點研究  陳麗宇、李欣欣
    Lexical Analysis of Business Chinese Teaching Material: A Study in Teacher Trainees’ Needs and Perceptions by Li-Yu Chen and Cindy Hsin-Hsin Lee
  • 摘要
    本論文以師培生的觀點角度以及培訓需求為出發點,考察商務華語教材中的商務詞彙,分析目前商務華語教材中詞彙特性;樣本選自大陸、臺灣、香港等三個地區中近十年出版的中級程度商務華語教材,探討被列為所謂中級程度的商務詞彙內容及艱深程度。詞彙研析由師培生的觀點出發,並比對商學院學生以及大陸商務漢語考試的常用詞語表,加以確認師培生觀點的分析結果。研究結果在於明瞭職前華語教師對於商務華語詞彙的理解程度,深入分析目前商務華語教材中的難詞比重及其專業領域分佈狀況,同時探討師培生想要成為商務華語教師所需的培訓資源。最後,根據研究結果研究者提出商務華語師培教育建議,以及商務華語教材中詞彙教學之方向。由於部分難詞源自兩岸專業用語差異,本文附件亦提供了兩岸專業商務用語差異比較表,以作為未來教材編寫者參考之用。

This study takes the viewpoints and needs of the students in a teacher training course to examine the business vocabulary in business Chinese teaching materials. It analyzes the characteristics of the lexicon of some current business Chinese textbooks. The samples were the intermediate-level business Chinese textbooks published in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the past ten years. We discuss the contents and difficulty level of the vocabulary used in the so-called intermediate business Chinese courses. The vocabulary analysis takes the view of the students in a teacher-training course and compares it with the views expressed by business college students. These views are then compared with the vocabulary list of frequently-used vocabulary of the Business Chinese Test used in Mainland China. The research results facilitate our understanding of the teacher trainees’ comprehension of business vocabulary and allow us to analyze in depth the specific weight of difficulty words and the distribution of specialty fields as contained in the current business Chinese textbooks. At the same time, this paper discusses the resources needed to educate business Chinese teacher trainees. Finally, this study raises some proposals for business Chinese teacher training and directions of business Chinese instruction. As the perception of some difficult vocabulary was due to the word-usage differences between the two sides of the Strait, this paper also provides a list of variant specialty words used in Mainland China and Taiwan as a reference for future textbook compilers.

  1. 對外漢語語法教材例句存在的問題及其對策  楊德峰
    Problems of Examples in Textbooks for Teaching Chinese as a Second Language and Countermeasures to Solve Them by De-Feng Yang

摘要
本文通過對1980年以來出版的20部對外漢語非學歷教育語法教材中的例句進行考察,發現例句存在缺乏語境、不規範、不合語法或語用、過時、脫離學習者的生活、詞語過難或過偏等諸多問題,並提出了一些解決這些問題的對策。

This paper analyzes the examples in the twenty grammar textbooks that have been published since the 1980s. Many problems in the examples are listed here. They include lack of context, deviation from language standards, ungrammatical, outdated contents, void of the learner’s daily life, words too hard, and other difficulties. This paper gives some countermeasures to solve the problems.

  1. 表加強否定語氣副詞「並」、「又」的語篇銜接功能  靳瑋
    A Study on the Textual Cohesive Functions of Bing and You under the Context of Emphasizing the Negative Meaning by Wei Chin
  • 摘要
    本文使用修辭結構理論考察漢語平衡語料庫中的「並」、「又」,對否定句中的「並」、「又」進行超句分析,考察後發現否定句中的「並」多出現於轉折修辭結構中,帶出前景信息,信息值高,否定句中的「又」多體現修辭結構中的背景關係,帶出後景信息,信息值低。接著,我們以認知語言學中的理想化認知模型考察「並」、「又」帶出信息的情理值,考察發現「並」帶出的信息情理值低,多是未知信息;「又」帶出的信息、情理值高,多為已知信息。

This paper first uses the Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) to study the negative sentences with you or bing which are taken from the Sinica Corpus. Bing type of negative sentences usually occurs in the rhetorical structure of transition, which brings out forwarded information of much value. You type of negative sentences usually occurs in the rhetorical structure of background, which brings out background information of less value. Next, an analysis of reason level in negative sentences with you and bing from the perspective of Idealized Cognitive Model (ICM) shows that bing takes low reason level and carries new information while you takes high reason level and carries given information.

  1. 法語編寫的華語教材在地化:以法語區中學生初級華語時貌教學為例  黃世宜
    Localization of Chinese Textbooks in French: Teaching Aspect Markers to French-Speaking Secondary-School Students as an Example by Terrier Shih-Yi Huang
  • 摘要
    本文透過瑞士法語區一線教師的在地經驗,體認華語課進入歐洲主流中學體制,須與歐洲語言學科競爭並居於弱勢的事實。為探討原因,筆者以初級華語時貌標記「了」、「過」、「著」為例,比較分析現有當地法語編寫的華語教材;並參酌分析當地歐語教學政策以及歐語教材,歸納歐語教學的優勢在於:1.教學語法術語已統一固定。2.以動詞變化為教學共同主軸,由易到難的學習規律循序進行。因此,建議一線教師面對多重歐語背景之學習者進行初級華語教學時,必須建立穩定而一致的教學語法體系,方有助開展華語教材教法之在地化。

In some areas of Europe, such as French-speaking parts of Switzerland, Chinese language programs are not yet fully established in secondary schools because of competitive disadvantages against European language instructions. To investigate the background of the situation, this paper focuses on the teaching of elementary Chinese aspect markers ‘le’, ‘guò’, and ‘zhe’ for French speakers by a comparative analysis of Chinese teaching materials in French, local European language teaching policy in Switzerland, and European language materials in general. Advantages of European language instructions include: (1) Grammatical terms are mostly regular and formulaic. (2) Conjugation of verbal forms is the guiding principle of instructional design. Thus, it is recommended that local Chinese teachers for multiple European language speakers establish a stable and consistent teaching grammar system in favor of localization of Chinese teaching materials and instructional methods.

  1. 現代漢語「雖然」與「儘管」的語用差異  黃苕冠
    The Pragmatic Difference between “Suiran” and “Jinguan” in Modern Mandarin Chinese by Tiao-Guan Huang
  • 摘要
    在現代漢語中,「雖然」與「儘管」多半被認為是二個完全同義的虛詞。本文藉助對「雖然」和「儘管」語法化的研究結果,論證「雖然」和「儘管」在語用上的細微差異。完整的「雖然」與「儘管」句式包含主要子句與從屬子句,主要子句為說寫人所要聲言之事實或結論,從屬子句即含有「雖然」或「儘管」之子句,為主要子句所表達之命題的背景信息。當說寫人對背景信息、存有預設,而該預設與主要子句的命題對立或相反時,為了令兩個互相對立之事實的推論關係明確化,說寫人用「雖然」將預設加以背景化表達出來。當說寫人認為某一客觀事實為條件,且應作為所要聲言之事實的重要背景信息,則用「儘管」將該客觀事實條件化與背景化。

This paper follows Chao’s (1999) semantic analysis of old, 老 lăo, 舊jiù and employs a cognitive approach to broaden the prior analysis and be even more precise by considering the context of the English usage of old. It further highlights the notion of subjectification in the analysis of old, good old, 老 lăo②, and 舊jiù③ to see the ”good”ness in the domain of TIME and SPACE. Authentic data were drawn from the corpus data of MICASE (Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English), and VDN Data (聯合知識庫) to provide a coherent contrastive cognitive analysis. Moreover, translated correspondents of old, 老 lăo, 舊jiù in three popular language textbooks were also used in the pedagogical evaluation. Preliminary findings suggest that there is a lack of equivalence in the English-Chinese translated correspondents in the language textbooks, which provides a scaffolding understanding process toward old, 老 lăo, 舊jiù, and further sheds light on better implementation of pedagogical sequences.

  1. Revisiting old老舊: A Cognitive Analysis and its Pedagogical Implementation by Enya Jin-Huei Dai
    再談old老舊:認知分析及其教學實踐  戴金惠
  • 摘要
    在現代漢語中,「雖然」與「儘管」多半被認為是二個完全同義的虛詞。本文藉助對「雖然」和「儘管」語法化的研究結果,論證「雖然」和「儘管」在語用上的細微差異。完整的「雖然」與「儘管」句式包含主要子句與從屬子句,主要子句為說寫人所要聲言之事實或結論,從屬子句即含有「雖然」或「儘管」之子句,為主要子句所表達之命題的背景信息。當說寫人對背景信息、存有預設,而該預設與主要子句的命題對立或相反時,為了令兩個互相對立之事實的推論關係明確化,說寫人用「雖然」將預設加以背景化表達出來。當說寫人認為某一客觀事實為條件,且應作為所要聲言之事實的重要背景信息,則用「儘管」將該客觀事實條件化與背景化。

Both ”suiran” and ”jinguan” are commonly considered synonymous functions words in modem Mandarin Chinese. The researcher of this pragmatics study argues that ”suiran” and ”jinguan” are slightly different from each other as a result of grammaticalization. The subordinate clause beginning with ”suiran” or ”jinguan” expresses background information, while the main clause expresses the fact or conclusion the language user intends to assert. When the speaker or writer takes a presumption of the background information in mind and the presumption is contrary to the proposition of the main clause, ”suiran” is used to set the presumption as background information and express the contrast between the presumption and conclusion by inference. If the speaker or writer considers an objective fact as a condition and important background information of an assertion, he/she uses ”jinguan” to indicate that fact.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第四期(2012.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 以提升跨文化溝通能力為目標之寓言學習模式探究 朱我芯
    A Study of Teaching Allegory to Enhance Cross-Cultural Communication Competence by Wo-Hsin Chu
  • 摘要
    中國寓言反映了華人文化的思想特徵,本文因而以之發展為提升跨文化溝通能力的語言學習內容。為發展有效提升跨文化溝通能力的寓言學習模式,本文以理論分析法剖析跨文化溝通能力的各種元素與寓言學習要點,作為推論基礎;並以德懷術研究法,蒐集且分析專家與學習者的異同觀點,確認學習模式之構成要項。針對跨文化導向的寓言學習,本文提出了理解、體驗、綜觀的認知歷程理念,並據此為學習模式的篇章內容、課堂活動、作業任務等三大構面,發展出融合跨文化溝通能力元素的各分項要點。在篇章內容方面,應表現華人重要文化思想,並以經典成語出處、詼諧幽默、貼近學生生活經驗為優先考量,避免長篇或哲理深奧。課堂活動方面,除了利用視覺圖像理解故事之外,主要透過小組討論,使學生融入故事角色與情境、開掘並應用寓意、對比母語文化與華人文化。作業任務方面,可模擬不同對象與場合進行說故事錄音、模擬生活情境應用寓意與成語、與不同國籍同學合作寓言創作演出、續寫或改寫寓言。如此學習模式,以臺灣師範大學國際華語與文化學系大二國際學生為對象,進行了實證教學與成效施測,結果發現,達成理想指標的學生比例達71.88%,顯見本文發展之寓言學習模式,確實有助於提升二語學生的跨文化溝通能力。

Classical Chinese allegories strongly reflect the essential characteristics of Chinese culture; consequently, this study built a Chinese allegory learning module for the purpose of enhancing CSL/CFL students’ cross-cultural communication (CCC) competence. This study utilized the theoretical analysis method as a foundation from which to infer and analyze the various elements of CCC competence and the principles of teaching allegories. As well, the Delphi technique research method was utilized in collecting and analyzing the viewpoints of language teaching experts and language learners, subsequently developing this learning module’s three constructs. With regards to these three constituents, which are allegory selection, classroom activities and assignments, this study employed a cognitive procedure of sequencing Perception, Experience and Synthesis, blended with essential elements of CCC competence, in developing all components for the three constructs. For allegory selection, works which exemplified the ideology of Chinese thought, contained classical idioms were the preferred material. As pertaining to classroom activities, in addition to utilizing visual imagery to understand the stories, students were led to uncover and apply the implicit meanings and contrast their native culture with that of Chinese people. Assignments included in-character storytelling recordings, simulations of daily-life applications of the implied meanings and idioms. This learning module was evaluated empirically through actual teaching of students of varying nationalities from the Department of Chinese Language and Culture Program for International Students at National Taiwan Normal University; when analyzed for efficacy, attained target CCC competency, clearly demonstrating this learning module as quite conducive to enhancing CSL/CFL students’ CCC competence.

  1. 任務條件和寫作形式對漢語二語寫作質量和數量的影響  袁芳遠
    Impacts of Task Conditions and Writing Modes on L2 Chinese Writing by Fang-Yuan Yuan
  • 摘要
    本研究以認知理論關於注意力分配對第二語言輸出影響假說為理論框架,調查三種任務條件和兩種寫作形式對漢語作為第二語言輸出在語言流利度、準確度、複雜度方面的影響。四十二名母語為英語的美國大學生參加了本項研究,分為對照組、提綱組和語言形式組,分別在兩個課時內完成一篇敘述文和一篇論說文的寫作任務。所得語料使用涵蓋語言流利度、準確度、複雜度等七項指標進行切割、統計、分析。統計結果表明,提綱組使用了較流利的語言,語言形式組使用了較複雜的語言;敘述文的準確度高於論說文,論說文的複雜度高於敘述文。也即是說,不同任務條件和寫作形式對漢語二語學習寫作的質量與數量均有影響,儘管在具體方面影響程度不同。

By following the theoretical framework of human’s limited processing capacity, this study examines how task conditions and writing modes influence the output of Chinese learners as a second language (L2) in the areas of fluency, complexity and accuracy. The participants were forty-two L2 Chinese learners at a North American university who were divided into three groups: control group, outline group, and sentence pattern group. The participants completed two writing tasks: narration and argumentation under one of the three task conditions. The output of the performance was measured in seven constructs in the areas of fluency, accuracy and complexity. The statistical results reveal that the outline group performed better in fluency while the sentence pattern group achieved higher scores in complexity. The participants wrote more accurately in the narrative writing but less sophisticatedly than in the argumentation writing. The results are discussed against previous studies using the information processing theory.

  1. 語言教師在課堂活動中對語法及語用的處理:口語課課堂觀察研究  李兆麟
    Language Teachers’ Treatments of Grammar and Pragmatics in Classroom Activities: An Observational Study of CSL Speaking Classes by Siu-Lun Lee
  • 摘要
    在語言教學界,已逐漸形成了一個共識,強調語言學習的最終目標不是得到語言知識,或者只是單純掌握標準的語音、規範的詞彙和語法形式,而是能夠自由運用這種語言交流資訊,表達思想,完成社會生活中的各種交際任務(李曉琪、章欣2010),以期達到“用中學”、“做中學”和“體驗中學”的教學理念(趙金銘2008)。本文以粵語二語教學為一個個案討論語法和語用的關係,也探索語言教師的語言觀如何影響課堂教學活動的設計。筆者在香港的粵語教室以觀察者身分觀察課堂活動。觀察者把教學重點及詳細資料以筆記形式記下,每節課觀察完成後,觀察者把觀察資料謄寫及整理,然後與被觀察者進行面談把課堂設計建構出來。本文從課堂活動討論在語言教學中,語法和語用配合的重要性。

In the language teaching field, there is a common belief that the purpose of language teaching and learning is not only acquiring linguistic knowledge. Teachers and learners are aiming at the ability to use the target language to communicate and express in real life environment (Li & Zhang 2010). Language teachers are looking for methods to achieve the concept of ”learning while using” and ”experience learning” (Zhao 2008). This paper uses Cantonese as a second language as a case study to discuss the relationship between grammatical correctness and pragmatic appropriateness. This paper also discusses how teachers’ beliefs affect their classroom teaching activities. The author acts as a silent observer in Cantonese classrooms in Hong Kong to observe classroom activities after observing the classroom activities, interviews are held to triangulate the result. This paper uses the classroom observation data to discuss the important links between syntactic rules and pragmatic language use.

  1. Topic Prominence and Its Pedagogical Implications by Chao Li
    漢語韻律教學:以第二語言學習者為主的肢體細胞增強方法  李朝
  • 摘要
    本論文的主要觀點是,有些漢語結構表面上不怎麼相關,實際上卻統一於話題突出之下。同時,漢英兩種語言在這些結構是否合乎語法方面表現出的差異,至少可以部分歸因於漢語是話題突出型語言而英語不是這一事實。漢語的話題突出對於中文教學來說,至少在下列三個方面有著重要意義:(一)教師有必要儘早向學生介紹“話題-述題”結構;(二)教材有必要系統地介紹“話題”、“話題-述題”和“話題突出”這些概念;(三)在考察學生漢語水準時,需要把話題突出的特徵考慮進去。

This paper shows that although some Chinese constructions may look disparate from each other at first glance, they are actually united by the fact that Chinese is a topic-prominent language. It argues that the fact that Chinese is a topic-prominent language and English is not is an important factor that contributes to the contrast in grammaticality between the Chinese constructions and their English counterparts. The importance of topic prominence in Chinese has at least three pedagogical implications. That is, in the teaching and learning of Chinese, it is important (i) to explain to students the topic-comment structure at the earliest appropriate point, (ii) to mention and systematically discuss the notions of ”topic,” ”topic-comment,” and ”topic prominence” in the textbook, and (iii) to take into consideration the topic-prominent features when assessing students’ proficiency in Chinese.

  1. Teaching Mandarin Prosody: A Somatically-Enhanced Approach for Second Language Learners by Felicia Zhang
    漢語韻律教學:以第二語言學習者為主的肢體細胞增強方法  張箴
  • 摘要
    本文報告使用主動學習技術教導在澳大利亞大學學習漢語的外國人的實證研究。主動學習技巧引用於稱為肢體細胞增強法研究出來的技巧。這些技巧包括哼聲,跟著語言節奏拍手,利用運動和手勢來加強對節奏的感知。本研究採用量性和質性方法分析其研究結果。結果表明,通過聲學分析發現實驗班的學生說漢語時聲音範圍比他們說英文時候的寬很多。這些學生上了30個小時的課以後,他們的口語考試結果被9個以漢語為母語的人評佑。評估的結果是實驗班學生的漢語比對照班學生的漢語好。此外,從實驗班學生的訪談資料發現,使用主動學習技巧能夠促使他們建立記憶策略,更增強了他們的記憶力。

This paper reports on an empirical study on the use of active learning techniques, the learning of Mandarin Chinese in a regional university in Australia. The active learning techniques are techniques derived from an active language learning approach known as the ‘Somatically-enhanced Approach’ to language learning. These included humming, clapping to rhythms of the language, using movement and gestures to enhance the perception of rhythmic patterns in a language. This empirical study was evaluated using a mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Results showed that through acoustic analysis, students’ developed a wider voice range when speaking Mandarin than when they speak English. With a wider voice range, students taught using this approach were perceived to have better pronunciation after 30 hours of instruction by nine native speakers of Mandarin judges. Furthermore, interview data from these students suggest that active learning techniques used in this approach enabled them to develop better memory strategies for learning as well.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第三期(2011.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 臺灣華語教師之教學環境及滿意度調查:十年來之變化發展分析  信世昌、李希奇、方淑華、李郡庭、林姵君
    A Survey on the Teaching Environment and Satisfaction for L2 Chinese Teachers in Taiwan: A Developmental Analysis of Changes during the First Decade of 21st Century by Shih-Chang Hsin, Hsi-Chi Lee, Shu-Hua Fang, Chun-Ting Lee, and Pei-Jun Lin
  • 摘要
    本研究為一項跨越十年的調查,旨在透過問卷調查瞭解臺灣華語教師之工作狀況及其對華語教學環境的看法及滿意度。研究針對臺灣各大學及民間華語中心教師為對象,分別在2000年、2005年及2010年進行了三次形式相同的問卷調查,其間各相隔五年,以比較其異同及變化趨向,並藉以記錄二十一世紀初期臺灣華語教師的情況。調查結果發現,華語教師之學歷及專業背景都持續成長。無論是自身待遇及工作環境等各方面,華語教師之滿意程度幾乎都以2005年為最高,明顯高於2000年的調查結果。但到了2010年卻呈現不進反退的情形,大多數項目的滿意度均呈下降趨勢。顯示近五年來華語教學環境並沒有進步,這是一個值得注意探究的議題。

This study consists of a survey that was performed over ten years, between 2000 and 2010. It aims to present concrete data regarding Chinese teachers’ views on and satisfaction with Taiwan’s Chinese teaching environment at university language training centers and private language schools. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2010. The purpose of these surveys is to compare changes in the teaching environment over time and provide a record of Taiwan’s Chinese as a second language teachers’ situation at the beginning of the 21st century.The results show that these Chinese teachers were most satisfied with the various aspect of their working environment in 2005, but their satisfaction rate showed a general decrease in 2010. This indicates that the working environment in Taiwan’s Chinese language centers has made little progress during the last 5 years. This problem is worthy of further study and is in need of improvement.

  1. 句型操練和體演文化  廖灝翔
    Drill Practice and Performed Culture Approach by Hao-Hsiang Liao
  • 摘要
    「句型操練」(Drill)和「體演文化」(Performed Culture Approach)是當前美國對外漢語教學課堂常見的兩種教學法。句型操練透過節奏和糾錯,讓學生在課堂裏得到大量的聽說練習。句型操練課「準確」和「流利」並重,前者指的是學生的語音、聲調及語法,而流利則是建立在準確的基礎上,學生不可因求快而犧牲發音,錯置聲調,語法紊亂。體演文化同樣也是「準確」和「流利」並重,但其更強調學生說話應對在中國文化中交際情況的得體性(cultural appropriateness)。換句話說,除了語法、聲調和語音外,學生必須知道在什麼場合該說什麼話、不該說什麼話,才顯得有教養、具文化,而不至擦槍走火,冒犯到中國人。本文裹,筆者將以個人的經驗,探討這兩種教學法的異同,並提供兩個教案,示範備課時的重點,希望藉此拋磚引玉,為兩種教學法建立彼此對話的可能性。

This paper investigates the similarities and differences between the Drill Approach and the Performed Culture Approach, two classroom activities widely used in the United States in the field of Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language. Under the drill approach, the teacher focuses on students’ pronunciation, intonation, tones and use of speech patterns by means of teacher-directed substitution and choral drilling. As a teacher ”conducts” their class, students receive a substantial amount of listening as well as speaking practice, and gradually develop their language fluency. While the Performed Culture Approach also emphasizes students’ accuracy of linguistic forms, it extends its focus to cultural appropriateness. Students of the Performed Culture Approach are expected not only to accurately articulate the target language but also to behave in a culturally appropriate way. In other words, cultural appropriateness is as important as language accuracy. Therefore, the goal of a teacher in a Performed Culture class is to help students develop cultural as well as linguistic situated knowledge, which can help them avoid cultural misunderstandings. It is hoped that by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, a dialogue between the two can be established.

  1. Implementing History and Memory in an Advanced Content-Based Chinese Class: What, How and Why in “Chinese History through Cinema and Cross-talk” by Enya Jin-Huei Dai
    注入歷史與記憶的新元素-高級漢語《看電影說相聲話中國近代史》  戴金惠
  • 摘要
    本文旨在探討對外漢語教學注入歷史與記憶的新元素的重要性,並以「看電影聼相聲話中國近代史」為例加以分析討論。筆者針對研究院國際專業的學生採認知教學方法選材,以真實語料突顯歷史視角的異同。打破以往教學格局,每週請學生參加二小時課堂討論與表演的課程、一小時個人化的語言操練,周五參加電影俱樂部,同時要用中文參與非同步的課堂部落格、反思部落格以英語記錄學習心得並提高語言意識。截選出中國近代史中重要的七大時段突顯兩岸的歷史與發展的對比。每個歷史時間段多佐以電影片段與不同語體的真實語料,同學們可以在Moodle獲取學習教材的內容。此外,為強調口述歷史與記憶的重要性,本課程也邀請講者用錄音的方式談「文化大革命」,隨後將課中觀課的母語人士與學生分組,討論文化大革命對母語人士家人的影響。

This paper documents the significance and relevance of history and memory in a foreign language classroom at the graduate level, taking the course ”Chinese History through Cinema and Cross-talk” as an example. The author employed a cognitive approach to design and select authentic materials targeted at graduate students majoring in international studies. Learners were asked to participate in a weekly two-hour traditional classroom discussion and performance section, an individualized timeslot for language practice, a Friday movie club or cross-talk performance, a class blog for commenting and reporting, and a reflective blog for developing and documenting cultural and learning awareness. Learning materials related to seven major Chinese historical periods were chosen in order to better showcase modern Chinese history and Chinese cultural mindsets. Each historical period was supported with media clips and authentic reading materials that students obtained from a secured learning management system. To emphasize the importance of history and memory, the class invited speakers to use audio recording to discuss the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Both native and non-native speakers of Chinese listened to these recordings. After listening to the recordings participants split into groups composed of one native and two non-native speakers, and discussed their impressions of the recordings.

  1. Implicit/Explicit Instruction Effects and Cross-linguistic Influence in the Second Language Acquisition of Chinese by Chiu-Hung Chen
    內隱/外顯教學和跨語言遷徙對華語為第二語言習得的影響  陳秋宏
  • 摘要
    本文對英語為母語的受試者對於內隱和外顯教學的差異效應進行了調查。主要的研究問題包括:一、對於學習和母語相似的語法結構,內隱教學是否對受試者比較有利?二、對於學習和母語不同的語法結構,外顯教學是否對受試者比較有利?三十六位中文水平為初級的大學生參加了本實驗。他們被隨機地分成兩個實驗組:內隱教學組(沒有語法教學)和外顯教學習組(有語法教學)。本實驗習得的目標結構為否定詞(和受試者的母語有相同的中心語/分支方向)和時間副詞(和受試者的母語有相反的中心語/分支方向)。實驗結果顯示在否定詞習得上,內隱教學組和外顯教學組並沒有顯著性差異,然而在時間副詞的習得方面,內隱教學組和外顯教學組卻有顯著性差異。

This study investigates the effects of implicit and explicit instruction on native English speaker’s acquisition of Chinese as a second language. Specifically, it addresses the following questions: 1) Will target structures similar to those in the learner’s first language (L1) be learned better with implicit instruction? 2) Will target structures different from those in the learner’s L1 be learned better with explicit instruction? Thirty-six college students who were beginner learners of Chinese participated in the experiment. They were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the implicit group (without grammar instruction) and the explicit group (with grammar instruction). The target structures taught to the students included negation markers (with the same head/branching direction as in the participants’ native language (L1)) and time adverbs (with the opposite head/branching direction of the participants’ L1). The results showed no significant differences between the two groups in the acquisition of negation markers. However, the explicit group performed significantly better than the implicit group in the acquisition of time adverbs.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第二期(2011.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 網路科技與參與學習:三種網路工具在中文教學中的作用  靳洪剛、路聖潔
    Participatory Learning and Internet Technology: The Use of Three Web Tools in TCFL by Hong-Gang Jin and Sheng-Jie Lu
  • 摘要
    本文旨在調查研究參與性網路科技在語言教學及中文教學中的作用。本文選擇了三種常用的網路工具進行比較、分析,以便瞭解各種網路工具在中文教學中所提供的參與度、互動性及其目標語使用機會。這三種網路工具分別為:(1)討論板;(2)博客;(3)Skype。21名在美國學習中文的大學生參與了本項調查。本項調查的結果對電腦網路輔助教學及中文教學領域有如下幾個方面的貢獻:(1)本項研究進一步證實參與性網路工具可以促進學習者積極參與各種互動學習;(2)本項調查還證實,如果教學設計合理,由參與性網路工具引起的參與學習可以提高學習者接觸、使用目標語的機會;(3)本項研究提出7評估網路工具的參與度及互動性的六項標準;(4)與此同時,本調查還建立了一套測量網路工具參與度及互動性的衡量系統。

This study explores Chinese language learning and instruction in a technology-rich, collaborative and participatory learning environment. Specifically, we compared and analyzed three types of participatory web tools for learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in order to understand each tool’s participatory functions, interactive features and impact on target language use. The study involved 21 U.S. undergraduate students who are learners of CFL. The three participatory web tools studied were discussion boards, blogs, and Skype.This study contributes to the field of technology-assisted language education and to the teaching CFL in four ways: (1) by providing evidence that the use of participatory web tools promotes participatory learning and authentic interaction; (2) by showing that if the pedagogical design is sound and the use of technology is appropriate, participatory learning that has been facilitated by participatory web tools increases learners’ target language use; (3) by developing six standards for evaluating the degree of participation and interaction induced by different web tools; and (4) by establishing a system to measure the degree of participation and interactivity induced by web tools used in second language instruction.

  1. 從「依」、「據」與「依據」談華語近義詞教學  吳佩晏、鄭縈
    Near Synonyms in Teaching Chinese as Second Language: A Case study to “yī”, “jù”, and “yījù” by Pei-Yen Wu and Ying Cheng
  • 摘要
    In this paper we investigate the distributional differences in semantic and syntactic patterns of Chinese near-synonyms ”依(yī)”, ”據(jù)”, and ”依據(yījù)” based on the data from ”Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Mandarin Chinese” ( Sinica Corpus ) and the sense distinction of Chinese WordNet. It has been observed that ”依(yī)”, ”據(jù)”, and ”依據(yījù)” are near-synonyms , but they have different syntactic distributions or collocations. Our analysis provides frequency-based teaching ordering, from high frequency (依) to low frequency (依據), from high sense frequency to low sense frequency, which will help Chinese second language learners to distinguish these three near-synonyms with efficiency
  1. 漢語語序的語法意義在對外漢語語法教學中的實際應用  何寶璋
    The Application of Positional Meaning in Chinese Syntax to Pedagogical Grammar of Teaching Chinese as a Second Language by Bao-Zhang He
  • 摘要
    語言學的研究成果可以服務於實際的對外漢語教學,使教學更加事半功倍,有的放矢。然而,二者往往相互脫節,使語言學研究成果被束之高閣,而對外漢語教學並沒有真正受益。本文通過實例介紹如何將「漢語語序的語法意義」這一現代漢語的規律運用到實際對外漢語教學中來。意在縮短漢語語言學研究和對外漢語教學之間的距離,使對外漢語教學受益於漢語語言學本體研究,使從事對外漢語教學的年輕教師和在校的對外漢語教學專業的同學們受益。

Teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language can benefit greatly from research results of Chinese linguistics, to make the teaching more efficiently and purposefully. However, there are gaps between the two. Consequently, the results of linguistic research are left untouched and from which the teaching Chinese as a foreign language is not gaining anything. This short paper is to demonstrate, by using example of positional meaning in Chinese syntax, how research results of Chinese linguistics can be applied to the teaching Chinese as a foreign language so as to shorten the distance between the two fields, to let the teaching Chinese as a second language benefit from linguistic research, and to help both the young teachers who are teaching foreigners learning Chinese and those who are in school readying themselves to get into the field.

  1. 走入主流:美國大學先修(AP)中文考試2007-2010結果分析  陳雅芬
    Going Mainstream: An Analysis of 2007-2010 AP Chinese Exam Results by Yea-Fen
  • 摘要
    隨著中國經濟、政治、軍事勢力的崛起,全球掀起了一股中文熱。在此潮流下,美國大學理事會設置大學先修(AP)中文課程、考試更帶動了高中生學習中文的熱潮,也同時提升了中文在美國主流社會的重要性。自2006年秋季AP課程開始設置、2007年春季年第一次AP考試至今已五年,有關AP中文課程、考試及其影響力的討論仍在持續中。本文將從大學理事會公布的考生人數、考生成分、考試成績來分析四年來AP中文考試的結果,此結果也將與AP考試其他AP外語考試(法文、德文、意大利文、日文、西班牙文)、尤其是與AP中文同時設立的AP日文及與中文同樣有眾多傳承語學習者的西班牙文做比較。最後筆者也探討AP中文考試對美國中文教育正面及反面的影響。

As China has gained prominence in the global arena as an economic, political, and military power, the study of Chinese has become increasingly popular. In response, the College Board of the United States launched the Advanced Placement (AP) Chinese Language and Culture Course and Exam, further driving high school students’ interest in learning Chinese and raising the status of Chinese in mainstream American society. It has been more than four years since the implementation of the first AP Chinese courses in fall 2006 and the AP Chinese Exam in spring 2007, but discussion about the AP Chinese Language and Culture Course and Exam and its influence is still taking place. This paper will analyze data released by the College Board regarding the number, demographics, and scores of the AP Chinese examinees over the last four years, and compare the results from the AP Chinese Exam and AP exams in other world languages (French, German, Italian, Japanese and Spanish) , focusing in particular on the AP Japanese Exam and AP Spanish Exam. Finally the author will explore the positive and negative impacts the AP Chinese Exam has had on Chinese language education in the United States.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第一期(2010.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 對外漢語聲調教學之現狀與教學法  刑志群
    Tone Pedagogy and Acquisition in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language by Janet Zhiqun Xing
  • 摘要
    本文通過對比分析漢語語音的特點,以及前人對漢語聲調和語調教學的研究結果,探討對外漢語聲調教學,特別是對英漢語之聲調教學之教學法。結果表明漢語內部的聲調和語調的干擾以及學生母語的干擾是造成他們學習漢語聲調困惑的兩個主要原因。根據這種情況,筆者提出聲調和語調互動的教學法,並且通過教學實踐演示、說明在教學中只有強調片語的聲調和語調的互動,學生才能真正掌握、學好漢語的聲調。

This study investigates the current popular methodologies used for teaching Chinese tones to non-native speakers, particularly English native speakers. Contrastive analysis is used to show that the difficulty in acquiring Chinese tones arises from two types of interference: interference between tones and intonations, and interference between Chinese intonations and those of the students’ native language. Evidence from this study suggests that the best way to help students learn tones is to teach phrasal / sentential tones and intonation, rather than individual tones.

  1. 詞義成分在TCSL的分析與應用-從「吃麥當勞」談起  許長謨
    Semantic Components and Their Analysis and Application in TCSL-Taking “Eating McDonald’s” as an Example by Chang-Mo Hsu
  • 摘要
    語言中的語義問題常依附在語音或構詞語法中呈現,形成語言的結構關係(Structuralism)。對外華語教學的學習者多屬成年的外國人,溝通時比較重視語義的正確性。由於學習者的音韻、語法能力薄淺,直接影響到對語(詞)義的領會,而其隨機或積蓄而迸發的語義問題往往或因跳脫教學者母語的構詞與語用習性,致教學者措手不及;或因平日習焉不察的問題在教學當場提問,而使教師難以第一時間回應。因此,華語教師須有一定的認知。在詞義的基本分析時,音韻問題一確立,就須直接面對構詞或語法的橫向組合(Syntagmatic)關係,先由上下語境(Co-text)確立語感的正確度,再縱向的嘗試其他的聚合(Paradigmatic)關係,以確認相似詞的正確度。後設檢驗中,符號學三角形(Triangle of Semiology)中「Word(Symbol)- Thought(Concept)- Thing(Referent)」的遞延關係是個分析原則。但在延伸應用或舉例時,使用語意成分(Semantic Components)的析離及上下義位的檢竅,或傳統語義學同義詞或反義詞等觀念做對比來檢驗語義的合宜度,都可以增進教學時對華語詞義的確認。本論文意圖利用幾個實際有效的角度,以實際教學為例,探討語義學(Semantics)的分析與應用。由於範圍過大,因此擬從「我們去吃麥當勞」一句漸漸通行的話語談起,舉用引出相關的教學原理,進以語義學理論論析如何輔助對外華語之教學。

Problems with semantics are often related to phonetic and syntactic issues, and reveal the nature of the structure of language. Most learners of Chinese as a second language are foreign adults, for whom accurate meaning is very important, but whose insufficient phonological and syntactic competence obstructs comprehension. However, their semantics-related questions during class are often impossible for teachers to answer using only their native speaker intuition. As a result, common but easily-missed problems frequently baffle first-time instructors. Therefore, an effective Chinese language teacher should possess some understanding of semantics.At the basic level of semantic analysis, once phonological problems are established, the cross-sectional syntagmatic relationship between morphology and syntax must be directly confronted. First, context must be used to determine the accuracy of one’s language intuition, and then other paradigmatic relationships must be tested longitudinally to confirm the accuracy of similar words. The ”Word (Symbol) – Thought (Concept) – Thing (Referent)” relationship of the Triangle of Semiology is an important analytical principle for attaining a proper understanding. However, while extending its application, we must use semantic components to examine the hyponymy, or the synonyms, polysemy and antonyms in classical semantics, and compare the appropriate usage. This can enhance the effectiveness of Chinese teaching.This paper attempts to use pedagogy as an example, and from several realistic perspectives explores the analysis and application of semantics. In order to narrow the scope of this study, we begin with the example sentence ”Eating McDonald’s” to elicit relevant pedagogical principles, and expound on ways for semantic theories to support the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language.

  1. 漢語動詞「生」的語意發展  曹逢甫、 陳菘霖
    The Semantic Development of the Chinese Verb “Sheng” by Feng-Fu Tsao and Sung-Lin Chen
  • 摘要
    本文從「以人體為本」和SUMO知識本體架構,歸結出動詞「生1」(亦即人類傳宗接代)始於人類自身的經驗行為,從語意核心開始呈現「幅射結構」的發展分作三條路徑:藉著隱喻機制映射到動物、植物、事態或事件的出現,「生1」的語意逐步泛化為「生2」(植物的出生、事態的發生)。再從「生1」的生殖模式,引申為「活著」即「生3」;人類的生殖模式從熟悉的母體到外在世界,可以表示對於事件的主體(人、事、物)呈現不了解、不熟悉的程度即「生4」。

This article analyzes the Chinese verb ”sheng” by using the concept of embodied cognition, and utilizing the SUMO ontology framework. The results show that the semantic core of sheng, the verb sheng 1, refers to human reproduction and therefore originates from human behavior. From this core the word developed in three main directions. Sheng 2 developed through metaphorical generalization to refer to the birth of animals or plants, or the beginning of an event. Sheng 3 developed the meaning ”to be alive” through sheng 1’s meaning of reproduction. Finally, sheng 4, which expresses a person or thing’s lack of understanding of or unfamiliarity with another person, place or situation, developed from the concept of leaving a mother’s womb and entering an unfamiliar world.

  1. 華語近義詞辨識難易度與學習策略初探  蔡美智
    Preliminary Study on Strategies for Learning Near-Synonyms in TCSL by Mei-Chih Tsai
  • 摘要
    學習第二語言到了中高級階段,語言表達準確與否關鍵不再是語法,而是詞彙。祖人植(1999)考察中高級階段華語詞彙偏誤,發現主要難點在於近義混淆,偏誤情形以動詞為最,名詞、形容詞次之。本文針對這三個詞類,外加副詞,探討相關近義詞群難以辨識的原因。研究方法採問卷調查,首先比對近義詞詞典揀選詞群,參照近義詞工具書所附說明和練習題製作問卷;其次發放就讀中高級華語課程的外籍生作答,回收後統計偏誤率,藉以評量詞群難易度:進而檢視說明內容和答題表現,確認學習難點,探討相關學習策略和教學策略。

Language learning at intermediate or high levels is mainly a matter of mastering vocabulary. According to Zu (1999), the use of near-synonyms is a major problem for learners at these levels. This study uses questionnaires to test how well intermediate and advanced CSL students can distinguish synonymous verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs. The error frequency in these questionnaires is used to evaluate the difficulty of distinguishing pairs of synonyms. Learning and teaching strategies are also discussed.

  1. 漢語的動詞刪略句與英漢對比分析  魏廷冀
    VP-ellipsis in Mandarin Chinese: A Comparative Analysis by Ting-Chi Wei
  • 摘要
    本文解析漢語動詞刪略句之焦點結構,從而理解漢語動詞刪略結構的訊息本質;更進一步從英漢對比分析的角度,比對英漢動詞刪略句之異同。我們不僅釐清了漢語動詞刪略句之焦點結構外,也針對英漢動詞刪略句的指涉及類型,作了清楚的比較,期望有助於了解此兩種語言動詞刪略句的基本差異,並冀望在華語教學上有所啟發。

This paper analyzes the focus structure of sentences with verb phrase ellipsis in Mandarin Chinese, and also contrasts ellipsis in English and Mandarin Chinese. Some pedagogical suggestions on the instruction of Mandarin VP-ellipsis are offered on the basis of these findings.

  1. 華語拒絕請求的策略分析:語體與語境的作用  謝佳玲
    An Analysis of Strategies for Refusing Requests in Chinese: Stylistic an Contextual Factors by Chia-Ling Hsieh
  • 摘要
    本研究根據真實的請求情境歸納華語的拒絕模式,詮釋在特定語體與語境變因作用下之運作特徵。語料來自台灣大學生與研究助理的對話內容,溝通媒介包括電話與電郵;拒絕標的包括勞心與勞力請求。結果指出,拒絕行為一般包含意圖明確的拒絕與阻因兩個成分,在電話中出現順序不定,偶以迂迴策略取代;在電郵中偏好先說明阻因再拒絕,並搭配更多道謝與道歉的禮貌策略。兩種語料的差異反映媒介的特性,電話接近口語語體;電郵接近書面語體。請求類型亦影響拒絕模式,內在阻因多用以拒絕勞心的請求;外在阻因拒絕勞力的請求,可見拒絕行為與請求標的有其相依性。結論顯示語言、語體與語境的互動,並為語用分析與華語教學的聯繫提供例證。

This study classifies Chinese refusals and examines their usage in particular styles and contexts. The refusals examined were in response to real-life request. The language data is drawn from telephone and email conversations between Taiwanese university students and research assistants. The results show that refusals tend to be explicit, and consist of a refusal and an impeding factor. In refusals made over the telephone these two components do not appear in a fixed order, and are occasionally replaced by indirect refusal strategies. In email the impeding factor often precedes the refusal, and politeness strategies such as gratitude and apology appear more often. These differences reflect the contrast between the styles of spoken and written communication. The nature of the request also affects the refusal. Internal impeding factors are often given in response to requests involving mental labor, while external impeding factors are given in response to requests that involve physical labor. The study’s conclusion explains the interaction between language, style and context, and provides examples that link pragmatic analysis and Chinese language teaching.