《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十一期(2015.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 漢語「在」處所片語詞序在日文與韓文的對應  戴浩一
    Pre-verbal and Post-verbal Chinese Locative zai Phrases with Reference to Their Correspondences in Japanese and Korean by James H.-Y. Tai
  • 摘要
    漢語「在」處所片語置於動詞之前或之後的規則建立在一個有認知基礎的語意區分。在動詞之前的語意是指涉事件發生的地點;在動詞之後的語意上是指涉人或物的地點,特別是動作結果的地點。這個區別也呈現在日文格助詞で(DE)與に(NI)的對照以及韓文에서(esΛ)與에(e)的對照。這種簡明的區分有助於日本、韓國學生,以及其他國家學習者對漢語「在」處所片語詞序的學習。

The placement of Chinese zai locative phrases before or after the main verb is based on a cognition-based semantic distinction between the location of an event and the location of an entity, especially as a result of the action. This distinction is also exhibited as de/ni distinction in Japanese, and as esΛ/e in Korean. The distinction is therefore useful in teaching the word order of Chinese zai locative phrases to Japanese students, Korean students, and students from other countries.

  1. 現代漢語情態副詞的語用分析──以語料庫中的「其實」一詞論述  張莉萍
    The Usages of Epistemic Adverbs Based on Corpora: Exemplified by Li-Ping Chang
  • 摘要
    現代漢語情態副詞「其實」在對外漢語教材中的語義說明通常是以英語“actually, in fact, as a matter of fact”表示,一般把它當詞條處理,不多做說明或練習。然而只靠翻譯,對其他與之意義相近的副詞,如「事實上、實在、真的」的使用,學習者很容易產生混用。本研究先透過書面語、口語語料庫檢視「其實」在真實語料中的用法,藉著詞和詞之間橫向關係與上下文之間的縱向關係,提出「其實」的語義與語用分析,並以同樣方法分析幾個相近語義副詞的異同。本研究建議在教材中對這類副詞除了翻譯其語義外,也要有清楚的語用指引,以提高學習者對此類副詞的學習意識進而避免偏誤。

The epistemic adverbs like qishi ‘in fact’ in L2 Chinese textbooks are traditionally only listed as lexical items and translated as ‘actually, in fact, as a matter of fact’. However, they often caused learners’ confusion in usage of the near synonyms such as shishishang, shizai, and zhende. This study utilizes the syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations of the epistemic adverbs through oral as well as written corpora to analyze the semantic and pragmatic functions. It shows that there are two meanings for qishi. One use of it is to point out the fact. The other is to express something contrary to what is expected. In order to raise learners’ consciousness and to avoid errors, this study suggests in addition to the translation of lexical items, the pragmatic function of epistemic adverbs be listed in the textbook and practiced in instruction.

  1. 兩岸學者共同開發成語與典故知識庫的記憶  俞士汶、朱學鋒
    Building the Idiom and Allusion Knowledge Base–Memories of the Joint Efforts by Scholars on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait by Shi-Wen Yuand Xue-Feng Zhu
  • 摘要
    本文介紹臺灣學者羅鳳珠教授主持的國際合作研究計畫「歷代語言知識庫建置」的概貌。主持這個計畫,羅老師演奏了華彩生命的最後樂章。「漢語成語與典故知識庫」是該計畫取得的成果之一,其研製基礎是北京大學計算語言所研製的「漢語成語知識庫」和羅老師建置的「詩詞曲典故資料庫」。本文介紹連接這兩個知識庫以建置「漢語成語與典故知識庫」的技術路線、內容以及應用於成語教學的展示平臺(http://cls.hs.yzu.edu.tw/DLKB/Idiom_Index.aspx)。我們與羅老師在計算語言學與中國古典文學交叉領域的合作已歷時20餘年。在合作中,我們深切地感受到羅老師的博學、勤奮、嚴謹、善良、開朗、堅毅,羅老師的精神及其留下的豐碩研究成果永遠活在我們的心中。

This paper introduces the outline of an international research project – Building a Diachronic Language Knowledge-Base, which was directed by Prof. Fengju Lo of Yuan Ze University in Taiwan and was also the swan song of Prof. Lo’s colorful life. The Chinese Idiom- Allusion Knowledge Base is one of the achievements of this project. It is based on the Chinese Idiom Knowledge Base developed by the Institute of Computational Linguistics at Peking University and the Allusions Knowledge Base by Prof. Lo. In this paper, we introduce the technical guidelines on connecting the above two knowledge bases to build the Chinese Idiom-Allusion Knowledge Base, its content and its application to idiom teaching on a platform (http://cls.hs.yzu.edu.tw/DLKB/Idiom_Index.aspx). For more than twenty years, we have been working with Prof. Lo in an interdisciplinary field of computational linguistics and Chinese classical literature. Being our longtime and close collaborator, Prof. Lo impressed us deeply with her erudition, diligence, rigorousness, kindness, cheerfulness and perseverance, which, together with her fruitful research achievements, will stay with us forever and ever.

  1. 教學為導向的漢語多義動詞辨析──以「開」為例  歐德芬
    An Instruction-oriented Analysis of Chinese Polysemous Verbs–A Case Study of kai by Te-Fen Ou
  • 摘要
    漢語動詞存在許多多義詞。就教學的角度而言,漢語中兼具高詞頻與多義項的動詞實為華語教學的重點。由於漢語多義詞義項確認不易,而且不同詞類有不同的句法特徵,其多義詞義項區辨的方式或不相同。本文基於華語詞彙語義教學的目的,辨析高詞頻兼多義項動詞的獨立義項並提出教學建議,因而以原則性多義理論(Principled Polysemy)結合次義項理論(Sub-sense Units)為多義動詞義項分析平臺,亦即結合動詞語義和句法或搭配共現等特徵,來定義多義動詞的獨立義項,以期於教學現場得以應用。本研究從詞頻統計、辭典語義與華語教材等三個面向進行高詞頻兼高義項動詞的篩選,同時以符合篩選機制的動詞「開」,進行多義動詞獨立義項分析,最後應用教學語法理論設計階段性的教學步驟,提出多義詞不同義項的教學順序,供華語教材編寫及課堂教學參考。

Many Chinese verbs are polysemy. From the perspective of pedagogy, high-frequency and polysemous verbs should be the focus of Chinese instruction. However, the identification of the senses of Chinese polysemy is extremely complicated, since the methods of distinguishing the senses of each polysemy are not necessarily the same. This paper, for the purpose of teaching the meaning of Chinese vocabulary, intends to differentiate between the individual senses and pedagogical application of high-frequency and polysemous verbs with an analysis platform constructed by Principled Polysemy (Evans 2005) and Sub-sense Units (Croft and Cruse 2004). For the application of curricula, the study combines features, such as verb senses, syntax or collocations, to define the individual senses of polysemous verbs. Furthermore, this paper attempts to screen out high-frequency verbs and polysemous verbs with frequency statistics, dictionary meanings and Chinese teaching materials. In addition, the study analyzes the individual senses of polysemous verbs with the verb kai that satisfies the screening mechanism. Finally, the author applies the theories of pedagogical grammar of Chinese and proposes the orders and procedures to teach a variety of senses of polysemous verb kai for Chinese teaching materials and curriculum pedagogy.

  1. Linking Motivation in Learning Chinese with National Standards for Foreign Language Learning by Heng-Hua Su
    華語學習動因與外語教學標準之關聯探討 蘇珩驊
  • 摘要
    本文旨在探索華語學習者選修華語為第二外語的動因構成。研究對象為美國中西部某大型公立大學華語項目不同年級的學生。結合前人的研究,本文作者設計了調查問卷並創建了首個調查華語學習動因構成的綜合模型,對不同年級的學習者進行了比較,並探討了學習者的學習動因與美國外語教師協會所提出的外語學習標準之間的連結。基於研究所得,作者在文末對華語教師提出了有針對性地改進課程設置和調整教學方法的建議。

This study presents preliminary findings on various constructs of motivation in students studying Chinese at various levels in a large scale Chinese program at a Midwest university in the United States. An innovative combinational model consisting of key factors in the motivation construct is proposed to facilitate determining whether the goals put forth in the National Standards align with the motivation constructs that students have for the language learning. Similarities and differences across levels were also examined. Based on the results found, suggestions are made to assist Chinese program directors and instructors to develop their curriculum and implement effective pedagogical methods.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十期(2015.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 二語學習者仿寫對偶修辭格對其漢語作文影響分析  吳雙
    Effects of CS/FL Learners’ Imitating Chinese Antithesis Figure of Speech in their Writing by Shuang Wu
  • 摘要
    中國傳統和普遍的修辭形式對偶修辭格對於二語學習者而言,蘊含著強大的語言習得和生成功能,有助於二語學習者快速習得漢語字詞文句,而且在漢語作為第二語言教學的歷史上,對偶早就作為一種重要教學手段在國外長期應用,這是由於它有利於學習者有機構建和擴展漢語詞彙網路,說明學習者瞭解和掌握漢語短語的基本構造,從而能快速掌握漢語字詞並學會造句。為了瞭解二語學習者學習對偶修辭格的成效,我們設計了實驗,探索二語寫作教學過程中對偶修辭格的輸入對學習者漢語寫作品質的影響。實驗結果顯示,留學生仿寫的對偶句特點是,出現很多仿「蜂歌樹裡,蝶舞花前」的四字工對,很多不那麼嚴格的寬對,不少流水對,很多標準的「可字句」,一些抄寫或引用的對偶句,還有對偶句仿寫出現諸多偏誤。通過留學生在做完仿寫練習後寫出的作文,我們發現出現了對偶句,也出現了排比句和準排比句,還出現了不少書面語感濃郁的語句。通過對仿寫對偶修辭格過程的原理分析,對偶句仿寫產出過程可以分為構造階段、轉換階段、執行階段,體現出「話語的接受—話語的建構—話語的輸出」這一資訊加工處理流程的特點。最後,筆者建議教材及教學中可增設有意識的增字類仿寫練習,通過對漢語字詞句意與形式的習得,提高產出能力,並提高其用詞的準確性、語句的複雜性、流利性和地道性。

Antithesis figure of speech is the most traditional and common Chinese rhetorical device. Due to its productive generalization, it might help CS/FL (Chinese as a Second/Foreign Language) learners quickly acquire Chinese words, phrases and sentences. In the history of teaching CS/FL, antithesis figure of speech has been used for quite a long time in pedagogy, for it can facilitate learners’ constructing and enlarging semantic networks of vocabulary by mastering the internal structures of words, phrases and sentences. For the purpose of evaluating the learning effects of Chinese antithesis figure of speech, we conducted an experiment to investigate CSL learners’ production of antithesis couplets. Results show that through the treatment of teaching antithesis couplets as templates by asking the participants to imitate them, their writings had the following characteristics: (1) fourcharacter couplets such as feng ge shuli, die wu huaqian ‘Bees sing songs among trees and butterflies dance around flowers’, (2) not strict antithesis/duel couplets, (3) ke construction, and (4) errors in antithesis couplets. After the teaching treatment, in the learners’ compositions often appeared antithesis, parallel and quasi-parallel sentences. Based on the results, we argue that the production of antithesis couplets consists of perception, construction and output stages in information processing procedure. We also suggest that in order to increase CS/FL learners’ accuracy in using words, complexity in making sentences, and fluency and native-likeness in forming texts, teachers can raise their awareness of analyzing the meanings and forms of Chinese words by providing practices in imitation of antithesis couplets.

  1. 基於新加坡小學華文教材語料庫的語音負擔分析  羅慶銘
    Phonological Functional Load in Singapore Primary School Textbooks: A Corpus-based Analysis by Qing-Ming Luo
  • 摘要
    語音負擔是指某個語音單位(聲母、韻母、聲調、音節)在語音傳遞過程所承載的信息量,也叫音位功能負擔。教材語音負擔作為重要的語音量化指標,對漢語語音習得、語音要素的等級劃分以及語音教學內容的編排都會產生直接或間接的影響。本文利用新加坡小學華文教材語料庫結合數理統計原理對教材中包括聲母、韻母、聲調等語音構成要素進行語音負擔測算。結果顯示,漢語聲母、韻母和聲調的語音負擔不是平均的,總體上韻母的語音負擔最重,其次是聲母,聲調的語音負擔最輕。但從平均負擔量看,聲調的語音負擔卻最重;聲、韻、調內部子系統的語音負擔也存在較大差異。造成漢語語音負擔差異的原因主要是各語音構成要素在使用頻率上存在差異,頻率與語音負擔成正比。但頻率不是改變語音負擔的唯一因素,語音系統內部配置,語音單位元之間的對立或者互補關係也會直接影響二元對立的語音負擔。這些初步結論對漢語語音習得研究和教學研究都具有參考價值。

Phonological functional load refers to the amount of information carried by a phonetic unit (consonants, vowels, tones and syllables) in a phonological transmission process and is also called phoneme functional load. As an important phonological quantification indicator, textbook phonological load has a direct or indirect impact on Chinese phonetic acquisition, classification of phonetic elements, and the content arrangement of phonetics teaching. Applying statistical principles to the Singapore primary school Chinese textbook corpus, this paper seeks to compute the phonological load of the textbook phonetic constituent elements, including consonants, vowels, and tones. Results indicate that the phonological load of Chinese consonants, vowels and tones is uneven. Vowels in general have the highest phonological load, followed by consonants, with tones having the lowest phonological load. However, an examination from the point of view of average load reveals that tones command the highest phonological load, with a greater difference in the phonological load of the internal subsystems of consonants, vowels and tones. The main cause for the difference in Chinese phonological load lies in a difference in the usage frequency of various phonetic constituent elements, with frequency being proportional to phonological load. However, frequency is not the sole factor that changes phonological load. The internal configuration of phonetic systems and the opposing or complimentary relationship between phonetic units would also directly affect the phonological load of binary oppositions. These preliminary conclusions are of reference value to the research and pedagogy of phonetic acquisition of Chinese as a second language.

  1. 以觀音靈籤作為華語閱讀教材及其教學設計  胡文菊、汪娟
    Developing a Reading Material Based on Kuan Yin Temple Oracle for Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language by Wen-Chu Hu and Chuan Wang
  • 摘要
    古代漢語蘊藏著豐富的中華文化寶藏,然而文言漢語常被一般人視為是死亡的語言,尤其在以華語為第二語言的教學領域裡,教材多以白話文為大宗,文言常常未得到太多的關注。對於此種現象學者們也提出了不同的看法。文言的遣詞用字洗鍊優美,適當的學習可以提升學習者的修辭知識、成語知識,更能帶領學習者一窺中華文化的精髓,領略漢語語言文化之美。我們選擇觀音靈籤作為中高級對外漢語閱讀教材的理由如下:第一,籤詩帶有謎樣的色彩,許多外籍人士對東方的求籤文化感到好奇,如果將這股好奇心結合華語學習,將是一莫大的學習助力。第二,觀音靈籤雖屬於文言漢語較為深奧難懂,但其中含藏了許多現代漢語常用的成語或習慣語,若熟悉這些詞語,學習者的語文程度將提升至另一個更高的階段。第三,一些研究顯示,學習者對於故事性的教材最感興趣。在每一首觀音靈籤的籤題背後都有一個歷史故事典故,因此學習起來饒富趣味,也能加深學習者的記憶與文化知識。此文首先探討文言漢語的教學策略,以及文言在華語文教學中應有的地位與重要性。其次本文分享如何將觀音靈籤改編成生活化華語學習教材,文中陳述此教材編輯時所依循的原則以及教材特色,並介紹此教材的內容編排,包括研究場域龍山寺簡介、入寺廟參拜的規矩、求籤的程序、籤詩體例與籤題背景故事等。文末更依據教學設計原理對此教材進行教學方法與教學活動的設計,希冀此研究能在華語文言教學與文化教學領域提供些許貢獻。

When people are perplexed with some questions in their life, one of the Asian/Chinese ways of approaching the problem is to seek guidance from Gods or Goddesses through temple divination. The oracle/poetry that one gets from the temple is the God/Goddess’ answer to his/her question. In Taiwan, Long Shan Temple is one of the must-visit attractions for many foreigners and Kuan Yin Oracle Board is used there. Temple divination is a mysterious ritual for many foreigners. Temple oracle therefore, we think, might become interesting and authentic reading material for Chinese language learners. Kuan Yin Temple Oracle is widely used in Chinese temples in different countries and it has a hundred poems written in classical Chinese. In this research, we firstly study the origin, the function and the structure of Kuan Yin Temple Oracle. We also review the literature on strategies of teaching classical text with the discussion of its role in teaching Chinese as a foreign language. We then list our guiding principles and methods of developing the Kuan Yin Oracle reading material tailored for foreign learners of Chinese. Finally, we try to design the teaching strategies for this special reading material, including several task-based learning activities. Suggestions for future research and practice are also provided.

  1. 探討《新版實用視聽華語》與「華測八千詞」選用詞語之異同  石伊婷、陳浩然、李維潔、楊惠媚
    A Study of the Vocabulary Items Used in Practical “Audio-Visual Chinese” and “TOCFL Chinese 8,000 Vocabulary” by Francess Yi-Ting Shih, Howard Hao-Jan Chen, Wei-Jie Lee, and Hui-Mei Yang
  • 摘要
    臺灣國家華語測驗推動工作委員會考試報告指出,無論報考華語文能力測驗(TOCFL)哪個級別的考生,多以《新版實用視聽華語》(以下簡稱《視華》)系列為主要教材。此表示教材內容影響著學生的學習狀況及TOCFL考試上的表現。有鑒於《視華》所涵蓋的詞語與TOCFL考試不同級別所需具備的詞語在過去並未經詳細探討,本研究藉由比較及分析兩者之間的詞語異同處得到了以下幾項發現:(1)兩者之間有3,693筆相同的詞語,有2,085筆《視華》詞語不在TOCFL詞表中,而有3,776筆TOCFL詞語未納入於《視華》中。(2)兩詞表的收詞原則不同,各具其選詞特色。(3)《視華》中具有較多臺灣特色的詞語。(4)TOCFL詞表「兒化」詞的數量高於《視華》。本研究進一步自《視華》未納入TOCFL詞表的2,085詞中,取得314筆高頻詞作為對TOCFL的建議詞表,也從TOCFL未收錄至《視華》的3,776詞中選取前三級的289筆詞作為對《視華》的建議詞語。期望本研究結果及建議可提供華語學習者、教師和教材與測驗編寫人員以及考試單位作為參考。

According to the report of The Steering Committee for the Test Of Proficiency-Huayu (SC-TOP), most of CSL (Chinese as a Second Language) learners in Taiwan taking The Test of Chinese as a Foreign Language (TOCFL) use "Practical Audio-Visual Chinese" series as the primary learning material. Thus, the content and vocabulary in the series have a clear impact on CSL learners’ learning and on their test performance. However, very few studies focused on comparing the vocabulary used in "Practical Audio-Visual Chinese" (PAVC wordlist) with "Chinese 8,000 Vocabulary" (TOCFL wordlist). In this study, we compared the vocabulary in the PAVC series of textbooks and TOCFL wordlist and found: (1) 3,693 words are shared by both PAVC and TOCFL wordlists, while 2,085 words in PAVC are not covered in TOCFL list. And TOCFL has 3,776 words that are not found in PAVC. (2) The criteria for selecting words in PAVC wordlist are different from those in TOCFL wordlist. (3) The PAVC contains more vocabulary items related to Taiwan features than TOCFL wordlist does. (4) The TOCFL wordlist contains a larger number of -er words than the PAVC does. Based on the results of comparison, we suggested that 314 high-frequency words in the PAVC could be included in TOCFL wordlist, and 289 words from the TOCFL wordlist could be incorporated into the PAVC. The findings of this study can serve as a useful reference for Chinese learners, teachers, textbook compilers, and language test agencies.

  1. Effect of Home Language on the Chinese Lexical Ability of 6-year-old Singaporean Children by Puah Lynn Dee and Tan Chee Lay
    家庭言語環境對新加坡6歲華族兒童詞彙能力的影響  潘霖妮、陳志銳
  • 摘要
    新加坡以英語為主要家庭用語的華族家庭有逐年上升的趨勢。為了更好地瞭解新加坡兒童的華語能力和語言使用情況,新加坡華文教研中心展開為期兩年的研究─《新加坡華族兒童語言環境及語言使用調查》。研究項取樣自新加坡學前中心,共有1,233名6歲兒童的父母參與問卷調查,當中372名兒童參加了圖片描述測試和認字測試。本文旨在探討家庭語言環境對新加坡6歲華族兒童詞彙能力的影響。本文選取了11名來自雙薪家庭、除幼稚園老師外無其他照顧者的兒童,並將它們分為三組─以華語為主要家庭用語、以華語及英語為主要家庭用語和以英語為主要家庭用語。兒童圖片描述測試的視頻或音頻,以CHAT模式轉寫,並以CLAN系統分析其詞頻、詞種、和平均句長。研究結果顯示,三組來自不同語言背景的11名新加坡華族6歲兒童的詞彙能力,在詞頻上沒有顯著區別,但是家庭用語對詞種和平均句長有顯著影響,功能詞的缺失,使得他們難以將所習得的詞彙組詞成句。

With English language dominating social use in Singapore, there is a rising trend of English being the dominant home language in local Chinese families. To better understand children’s Chinese language ability and their language exposure, the Singapore Centre for Chinese Language conducted a 2-year research project entitled "An Investigation of Singaporean Chinese Preschoolers’ Language Use & Exposure". A total of 1,233 parents of Kindergarten 2 children (aged 6) participated in a survey, and 372 children of these 1,233 parents subsequently participated in a picture description and a character recognition test. This paper aims to examine the effect of home language on the Chinese lexical ability of 6-year-old Singaporean Chinese children. Eleven children from dual income family were selected and divided into three home language groups: CHL (Chinese as main home language), CEHL (Chinese and English as main home languages) and EHL (English as main home language). Video- and audio-recordings were transcribed by using CHAT transcription. Word types, word tokens and mean length of utterance were analyzed by CLAN program. Two-way ANOVA analyses with home language and gender as independent variables were performed separately on word types, word tokens and mean length of utterance. The results reveal that lexical ability of the 11 6-year-old Chinese children has no significant difference across three home language groups in terms of the lexicon acquired. However, home language has significant effect on word type and mean length of utterance. The lack of function words causes them problems in putting words together.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第九期(2014.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 兩岸華語初級階段教材之漢字用字量及互通性初探  信世昌、周昭廷
    Why Yes in Business Chinese Can Become No? by Shih-Chang Hsin, Chao-Ting Chou
  • 摘要
    許多外籍華語學習者都曾分別在兩岸學過華語,或分別使用過兩岸的教材,但兩岸教材中的詞語差異必然造成華語學習者的銜接困難,在字彙方面的差異不只是繁簡字體的問題,也牽涉到兩岸教材中的用字量及互相涵蓋率的問題。本研究即以從零起點開始到完成初級階段(約一學年)的前兩本教材為限,以字彙編列問題為研究核心。我們挑選了台灣及中國大陸較普及的兩套系列型的初級華語教材,即台灣的《遠東生活華語》的第I及第II冊(後者包含AB上下兩冊)、及大陸的《新實用漢語課本》的第一冊及第二冊,我們分析了兩套教材的所有課文,統計各本教材用了多少個不同的單字、以及各單字出現的次數及頻率。基於統計結果,兩岸的初級階段教材在字集方面有明顯的差異,在兩岸分別學習華語的外國學生,其所學得的漢字頗有差別。若以此兩套教材為例,先在台灣學過的外國學生轉赴大陸唸中級華語時,會有24%的初級漢字從未學過;反之,先在大陸學過的外國學生轉來台灣唸中級華語時,更有高達近半數的初級漢字(49%)未曾學過。此外,兩岸不同的社會用語習慣亦影響了教材的漢字差異。其銜接與彌補的問題值得進一步關注。

Many L2 learners of Chinese are found to learn Chinese in both Taiwan and China. An obvious question arises in this context is the cross-strait interchangeability of vocabularies introduced in different textbooks. For instance, one of the difficulties lies in the traditional-simplified distinction of Chinese characters. More importantly, the cross-strait mismatch of the vocabulary quantity in different textbooks is another issue that is likely to cause a transitional challenge for these learners to go from one place to another through their learning process. The major research question of this paper is the quantity and the cross-strait interchangeability of the vocabularies in the textbooks used for the first two semesters (=one year) in beginner’s Chinese courses in both Taiwan and China. The representative textbooks used for beginners in Taiwan are Book I, Book IIA, and Book IIB of Far East Everyday Chinese. On the other hand, the counterparts in China are Book I and Book II of Practical Chinese Reader, New Edition. We carried out statistical analysis of the texts in these two textbooks, focusing on the frequency and the times of occurrences of the vocabularies. The results of the statistical analyses show significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the sets of characters introduced in these textbooks in Taiwan and Mainland China. Students who start out to study Chinese in Taiwan would face 24% unknown characters introduced in Practical Chinese Reader, New Edition when they transfer to Mainland China at the same level. By contrast, those who start out in Mainland China would find unfamiliar 49% of the characters in Far East Everyday Chinese when transferring to Taiwan. In addition, the social-linguistic disparity between Taiwan and Mainland China influences the selection of characters/vocabularies in textbooks. Thus, further research is needed to bridge the cross-strait qualitative/quantitative gap between the characters/vocabularies introduced in textbooks for beginner’s level.

  1. 為什麼商務華語中的Yes可能是No?  陳麗宇、鄭錦全
    Malaysian Chinese Independent High School Students’ Cognitive Understanding of Take “Na” Action Verbs in Chinese: Examples from “V + N” Structures by Li-Yu Chen, Chin-Chuan Cheng
  • 摘要
    在漢語區工作的外國商務人員,常會追問為什麼在商務英漢的交流或正式談判裡,Yes在會中或會後可能變成No。這種可能被解釋為欺騙的語言行為,其實可以有多項語用解釋。本文從語言的對話結構說明漢語的「是」並不完全對應英語的Yes,漢語的「是」在回答英語的問題時,是表示同意對方的說法,並不是回應英語的問話內容的肯定或否定。「是」還可以用來表達「我聽著,請繼續說」暫時自己不做決定的立場、遲疑的態度和「雖然」的轉折。「是」在有些場合也是用來彌補面子問題的回應詞,給予對方下臺的機會,並不是同意對方的說法。還有,過去十幾年,台灣出現沒有實質內容的「是」和「對」作為發語詞,有時還聽到說話人各處穿插這兩個詞語,用來彌補語流的空白。本文論述這類語言生活中的問題,並且從語用的觀點提出商務華語詞語教學建言。

Foreign business professionals working in Chinese-speaking regions often asked why in business English-Chinese conversations or formal negotiations, "yes" could turn into "no" right in the meeting or afterwards. Such a seemingly cheating language behavior in fact may have various explanations. This study explains in terms of dialog structure that the Chinese word "shi" does not correspond completely to English "yes". Chinese "shi" in answering English questions expresses the speaker’s agreement to what is said in the question and not to the positive or negative statement of the question sentence. "Shi" can also be used to indicate "I am listening, please go on" while undecided, hesitation, or concession. It is also used on some occasions as a response to save the face of the interlocutor and does not mean to agree with the person addressed. Moreover, in the past decade or so in Taiwan people used "shi" and "dui" as a non-sensical word in their conversation. They could be heard as speakers dotted the discourse with these words to fill the gap in the speech stream. This study discusses these pragmatic problems in language use. Some suggestions are raised for vocabulary teaching in business Chinese.

  1. 華語否則類短語的篇章與人際功能探究  王萸芳、蔡碧華、許訓銘、胡凱閔
    A Corpus-based Study of the Textual and Interpersonal Functions of Mandarin Chinese (Yao)Buran, Yaobu, and Fouze by Yu-Fang Wang, Pi-Hua Tsai, Hsun-Ming Hsu, Kai-Ming Hu
  • 摘要
    華語「不然」和「否則」在古代漢語都有「不是如此,不是這樣」的意思,後來發展出「如果不是這樣」的意思,表示前面敍述了一種情況,反過來的另一種情況就不是這樣了。「不然」也有一些變體,如「要不」、「要不然」和「再不然」。本研究旨在探究「不然」、「要不然」和「要不」以及「否則」出現於日常會話及電視政論兩種不同的口語語體的特色。研究採用Halliday(1994)語言的三個元功能為分析架構,即“表義/概念功能”,“人際功能”和“語篇功能”。研究發現,「不然」及其變體(特別是「要不然」)出現在日常會話比電視政論多,然「否則」卻較多出現於電視政論。此外,本研究也顯示:從「不然」、「要不然」和「要不」在篇章與人際層面的功能來看,因其常出現在條件因果句或假設句,其意義具有主觀性,甚至交互主觀性(Traugott and Dasher 2002),故較常出現於不正式的口語會話中。「不然」已從「不是如此」的意義漸漸延伸至有高度主觀性,如表推論,與交互主觀性,如表建議的功能。另外,「(要)不然」與「要不」在功能上雖有許多相似處,但此二詞在語法化的後半部階段有不同的發展,故二者亦有不同處。為了掌握這不同領域中的語義語用現象,我們借助Fauconnier and Turner(2002)所提出的融合理論(Blending Theory)來解釋「不然」與「否則」所銜接的句子其背後的心理空間現象,進而說明其語法化現象的過程,並以前人的研究及本研究結果為基礎,考察口語中的「(要)不然」、「要不」和「否則」中語法化的程度。研究發現,與「不然」、「要不然」和「要不」相較,「否則」主觀性強,交互主觀性卻不如它們強。

This study discusses the textual and pragmatic (interpersonal) functions of the near-synonyms (yao) buran, yaobu and fouze, which parallel to English ‘otherwise’, or ‘or’, connecting two clauses to express ‘or else; if not, then’. In particular, drawing on Halliday’s (1994) three-level model, viz. ideational (propositional), textual and interpersonal functions, the study looks into their uses in two different text types: daily casual conversations and TV political panel discussions. The data show that (yao) buran and yaobu tend to occur in casual conversations, while fouze, in political panel discussions. In addition, yaobu is used differently from buran in some ways, though both of them might come from yaoburan, which is composed of yao and buran. As a whole, this study suggests that (yao) buran and fouze, which originally had a referential meaning ‘not so’, are subjective in the sense that they involve the speaker’s assessment and evaluation of a proposition. However, the meanings of (yao) buran and yaobu are more subjective than that of fouze and they are even more intersubjective, which involves the speaker’s attention to the addressee as a participant in the speech event (Traugott and Dasher 2002). Finally, we account for the differences between fouze and buran by using Fauconnier and Turner’s Mental Space Blending Theory (2002).

  1. 漢語教學中數目詞的探究  江惜美
    Chinese Numerals in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language by Hsi-Mei Chiang
  • 摘要
    本文旨在探究數目字在漢語中的使用情形,以及出現的形態、應如何教學,以供華語教學者參考。漢字經歷代的演變,字形不一、讀音各異,在數目字上亦復如是。筆者在實地觀課時,發現教數目字,除了基本的一~十的寫法,其實還必須另外就「二、兩」、「一、壹」和「万、萬」等進行辨析,讓外籍生了解實際上應如何應用,因此,就漢語中數目字進行爬梳。首先,解釋各個數目字的不同寫法、讀音與其分類,然後,就教學上分辨這些字詞出現的情況,最後,說明漢語教學中教數目字可使用的方法,希望能透過對數目字形、音、義的了解,以及如何教學,提供華語教學者參考。我國有許多成語,與數目字息息相關,更具有特殊的文化意涵,本文將舉例說明,幫助華語教學者不只能對字義加以明確的解釋,更能進一步傳達數目字所代表的深意。數目字在今日生活中,通常與量詞結合,形成特定的用法,應用廣泛,值得華語教學者深入探究。

This paper aims to explore the application of the variation of numerals in Chinese and how these different forms of numerical words should be taught in Chinese as a second language. Chinese characters have evolved and developed over time from their earliest known pictographic forms, and to the versions used today. It holds true for Chinese characters for the numbers 1 to 10. More specifically, it is found that while teaching Chinese numbers corresponding to one to ten, teachers need to verify how "èr二 and liăng兩", "yī一 and yī壹", and "wàn万 and wàn萬" are used in context to help learners use them appropriately. In this paper, the numeral Chinese characters in terms of its forms and pronunciations followed by their frequencies of occurrences in teaching. Finally, methods are suggested for teachers while teaching these various written forms of Chinese numbers. It is hoped that thought the analyzing of the different characters, pronunciations, and meanings of Chinese numbers, teachers can have a better understanding regarding Chinese numeral characters. More importantly, many Chinese idioms are closely related to numbers which often connote special cultural meanings. This article will illustrate some of these number idioms as examples so that teachers will explain not only the meaning of words literally, but also the connotation of these numeral characters in idioms. Today, Chinese numeral characters, often in combination with measure words, carry special meaning and are used widely in various disciplines. There is a need for Chinese educators and researchers to explore further.

  1. 法律華語教學之定位、定性和定向分析 陳寅清
    Teaching Legal Chinese for Second Language Learners: Analysis of Orientation, Quality and Direction by Yin-Ching Chen
  • 摘要
    「法律華語」為「專業華語」的分支學科之一,性質屬於「特定目的之外語教學」(Languages for Specific Purposes),兼跨二語教學與法律專業之雙重領域,在學術研究與教學應用上皆尚有極大的發展空間。本文先就英美針對國際學生設計的法律英語課程及相關研究進行考察,再以國際專業外語教學的理論為基礎,針對海峽兩岸出版的法律華語教科書,以及商務華語教科書中涉及法律概念、法律實務,與法律文化的教材進行分析,以期呈顯法律華語教學的學科性質、定位和特徵,進而提供未來專業法律華語的教學及研究參考。

Legal Chinese is one of the courses of Chinese for Specific Purposes, which involves the two disciplines of teaching Chinese as a second language and legal education. Compared to legal English studies, the field of teaching legal Chinese still has much more to be explored. This paper first looks into relevant studies and theories of teaching legal English for international students; then based on the theories of teaching foreign language for specific purposes, the paper discusses the course materials of legal Chinese, including legal Chinese textbooks, as well as chapters involves legal knowledge in business Chinese textbooks. By clarifying the nature and characteristics of the emerging field of legal Chinese teaching, this pilot study hopes to provide useful references for future research and teaching of legal Chinese for second language learners.

    1. Self-repair Practices in a Chinese as a Second Language Classroom by Xiao-Fei Tang
      漢語作為第二語言課堂的話輪自我修復實踐 唐曉菲
  • 摘要
    話輪修補在語言教學中的地位至關重要。基於會話分析理論,對話輪修補進行深入探討,有助於第二語言習得與教學法的進一步發展。儘管相關語言學研究通過分析北京或台灣普通話會話材料以解決話輪修補的問題,但甚少側重漢語作為第二語言學習者在漢語課堂會話中的自我修補機制。同時相關研究僅注重區分話輪修補的具體方法,並未詳細討論每種話輪修補機制的發啟與結果。因此本文旨在研究漢語課堂會話中二語學習者自我修補機制的實際現象,以期激勵漢語教師在實際教學中對二語學習者提供更為有效的幫助。本文採用會話分析的傳統方法,調查了兩種自我修補機制(即自我發啟自我修補與他人發啟自我修補)並驗證了相應的運用策略。本研究數據來自武漢大學公共語料庫,錄音時長共計147分鐘,涉及四名漢語教師與兩組班級間的課堂會話。本研究結果表明,除他人發啟修補機制外,上述兩種自我修補機制均出現在會話數據中,此外教師通過重複之前的提問來強調或間接指出學生話輪中的癥結所在。該結果證明,會話分析的方法適用於漢語作為第二語言課堂師生會話的研究。漢語課堂會話中表現出的自我修補的不同方式與對英語日常會話分析的以往研究結果亦大致相同,但仍存在自我特徵。從教學法意義言之,會話分析可以幫助漢語教師透過觀察學習者自我修補機制的運用,瞭解學習者的漢語掌握及運用能力。

The organization of repair plays the most significant role in language instruction. Insight into repair, informed by Conversation Analysis (CA), contributes to the development of second-language acquisition (SLA) and pedagogy. While a number of Chinese linguists have worked on the issue of repair with the Beijing and Taiwan Mandarin Chinese conversation data (e.g., Chui 1996; Tao 1995; Yang 2009), attention is rarely focused on Chinese as a second language (CSL) learners’ self-repair and the repair devices applied in Chinese institutional talk. Also, the initiation and the outcome of each repair were not properly discussed, as these studies only analyzed the classifications of detailed repair methods. Therefore, this study aims to look into the details of L2 learners’ self-repair devices in Mandarin Chinese classrooms, in order to inspire CSL teachers to reach out to L2 learners more effectively and successfully in an authentic teaching context. To do this, I investigated the two types of self-repair (i.e., self-initiated self-repair and other-initiated self-repair) and identified the appropriate repair practices in Chinese conversation. The analysis was based on 147-minutes of audio involving institutional conversation between four teachers and two CSL classes, drawn from a corpus recorded at Wuhan University, China. The results indicated two types of self-repair while the absence of other-initiation methods were noted in the data. Instead, the repetition of the original question was utilized by CSL teachers in order to emphasize and indirectly target the trouble source of the students’ turns. Therefore, I concluded that although the CA-informed repair mechanism is highly applicable to Chinese conversations, some particular features of self-repair in the CSL classroom cannot be ignored.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第八期(2014.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 對外漢語學習詞典的語用信息研究  卜源、蘇新春
    The Study of Pragmatic Information in Chinese Learning Dictionaries by Yuan Bu, Xin-Chun Su
  • 摘要
    語用學在最近幾十年發展快速,使得語用學原理在詞典編纂中的應用逐漸被詞典學家們所重視。外國學生也普遍期望能擁有一部實用的學習詞典,來告訴他們詞語使用的對象、場合、情景,蘊含的冒犯、禮貌程度,傳達的感情,使用的意圖,產生的效果等有用的語用知識。學習詞典如何吸收語用學成果,提供哪些語用信息及怎樣展示它們,從而積極引導學習者得體有效地理解和使用漢語,是當前對外漢語學習詞典編撰的一個重要議題。本文從語用信息的價值出發,介紹了漢語學習詞典中語用信息的具體內容及呈現方式,對比分析了三部對外漢語學習詞典,指出了它們在語用信息提供方面的一些優缺點,並對未來漢語學習詞典編纂中的語用信息構建問題提出了一些建議,希望對未來學習詞典的編纂帶來啓發。

Pragmatics, as a branch of linguistics, has been developing rapidly in recent decades. More and more lexicographers have done studies in pragmatics application to lexicography. Meanwhile, most of the foreign students who learn Chinese hope to own a useful dictionary, which can tell them adequate pragmatic knowledge, including the object factors, occasion, situation, context, offence information, politeness degree, emotion meaning, aim and effect of using a word. Therefore, as a reference book for learners, it is very important for a dictionary to provide pragmatic information more efficiently. This paper investigates and analyses the types and presentation methods of pragmatic information in Chinese learners’ dictionaries. Based on the analysis and comparison of the pragmatic information provided in three current dictionaries, suggestions are given to shed light on how to enrich and present pragmatic information in future dictionaries.

  1. 馬來西亞獨中生認知「拿」類手部動作動詞的機制-以「V+N」動賓結構為例  陳秀君、高虹
    Malaysian Chinese Independent High School Students’ Cognitive Understanding of Take “Na” Action Verbs in Chinese: Examples from “V + N” Structures by Siew-Chien Chin, Helena Hong Gao
  • 摘要
    馬來西亞的華語類似台灣的國語和新加坡的華語,都是在課堂上正規的普通話教育和課外社會中漢語多種方言的扶持下逐步發展起來的。這使得馬拉西亞的華語在很多方面更接近台灣的國語和新加坡的華語,而不是中國大陸的普通話。由於複雜的語言環境也使得馬來西亞華語使用者對有些詞彙的掌握和使用上出現了偏好,比如偏向使用某一個詞來表達一類類似的事件或一類相似的事物,而對其他同義或近義的詞卻很少使用等。根據我們的語感和觀察,發現馬來西亞的華語使用者就「拿」類手部動作動詞的應用上,存在「一物多拿」的現象。於是我們做了一項實證研究,假設「V(「拿」類手部動作動詞)+N」結構是藉由認知「拿」的機制,即建立在賓語屬性範疇化與「拿」的動作屬性之間的導向關係,以馬來西亞南部(簡稱南馬區)三所獨立中學(即以華語為教學媒介語的中學)為例,通過抽樣實證和量化數據來討論馬來西亞華語使用者「一物多拿」的現象,既而解釋華語使用者認知「拿」的機制如何啓動受事名詞及其物體知識、謂詞結構及其動作等相關的知識。

Similar to Taiwan and Singaporean Chinese, Malaysian Chinese has been developed by means of formal education at school as well as by taking Chinese dialects as a bridge to the lerning of the Chinese language, nonrmally known as Putonghua. Due to the similar complex language environments, Malaysian Chinese has become more similar to Singaporean and Taiwan Chinese than Putonghua spoken in Mainland China. Malaysian Chinese speakers are found to have a tendence in using certain lexical words more often than others. According to our experience and observation, the Malaysian Chinese speakers tend to use the verb Na "take" to describe many similar actions with different kinds of patient objects involved in the V + N structure. In this study we conducted an experiment based on our assumption that the structure of V (Na "take" action verbs) + N is a reflection of the Chinese speakers’ cognitive process of the the event structure of taking actions. That is, the semantic domains that the patient objects of the Na "take" action verb belong to are correlated with the action manners of the Na "take" actions that the verb describes. The participants of the study were from three Chinese independent high schools in the southern part of Malaysia. These schools provide secondary education in the Chinese language as the continuation of the primary education in Chinese national-type primary schools. The experiment results were analyzed and discussed to show how the Malaysian Chinese speakers had the cognitive mapping between the Na "take" action verbs and their different kinds of patient objects. Discussions were given about how the speakers’ cognitive understanding of the Na "take" actions would activate the speakers’ prior knowledge of the corresponding action verbs and the semantic knowledge of their patient objects, which altogether would build up the linguistic structure of the verbs.

  1. 華語學習者句式使用情況分析  張莉萍
    The Usage of Some Sentence Patterns by L2 Chinese Learners: A Corpus-Based Study by Li-Ping Chang
  • 摘要
    本研究藉由以任務為導向的電腦寫作考試語料來分析量化不同程度華語學習者的句式使用情況,目的是為了找出不同能力學習者的關鍵語言特徵,以作為評量時的參照指標。研究方法包括母語與二語語料庫之間的對比,以及偏誤分析(正誤用例比例)的方法,以找出學習者過度使用或少用哪些語言特徵、不同能力學習者的習得情況。對於是否為關鍵性特徵的判定則以Hawkins and Buttery(2010)對關鍵特徵的判定標準為主,以統計上的差異是否具有顯著性為依據。本文以「把字句、被字句、連字句」為例,觀察分析這些句式的使用頻率、偏誤率、次結構使用情況。這些資訊將有助於華語教學大綱的制定和教學材料的編寫,為學習、教學與評量設計提供科學的根據。

This study aims to explore the salient linguistic features of Chinese syntactic structures across the CEFR levels. It takes Ba sentences, Bei sentences, and Lian sentences as examples to examine their usage in terms of occurrence frequency, errors, and substructures produced by L2 Chinese learners. The research is based on corpus linguistics method, by comparing the sentences in a learner (L2) corpus and a native-speaker (L1) corpus. The L2 corpus which consists of more than 1.14 million Chinese words from novice proficiency to advanced learners’ texts is mainly from the computerbased writing Test of Chinese as a Foreign Language (TOCFL). The L1 corpus is the Academia Sinica balanced corpus. According to the statistical significance criterion proposed by Hawkins and Buttery (2010), these specific structures are used as the criterial features to classify different proficiency levels.

  1. 現階段香港大學生普通話「命題說話」測試項中的偏誤分析  張翼
    The Analysis of Typical Errors Committed by Hong Kong University Students in the Putonghua Speaking Test by Yi Zhang
  • 摘要
    自2001至2011年,港人的普通話水準有了普遍提升,主要體現在普通話語音方面,而內容方面,包括詞語選用及語法結構帶著濃郁的「港味」。本文以150名香港大學生所參加的普通話「命題說話」項測試的語料為依據,從詞法、句法以及語篇三個角度統計並篩選了排名前十的偏誤類型,嘗試分析港人學習普通話所產生的偏誤成因。分析表明,偏誤可能源於粵語及英語的遷移、港式書面語、本地中文教學三個方面。

Over the past ten years (2001-2011), Hong Kong people’s Putonghua proficiency, specifically their pronunciation, improved a great deal. However, their spoken Putonghua discourse, including lexical choice and grammatical structure, carried features of "Hong Kong-style". On the basis of the corpus-based data analysis of 150 Hong Kong University students who took the Putonghua speaking test, this paper discusses the top ten error types in spoken Putonghua committed by students in morphology, syntax as well as discourse. The errors and the causes are analyzed. The most common factors of the errors originate from the negative transfer of Cantonese and English, the "Hong Kong-style" Chinese, and the effect of local Chinese education.

  1. Teaching Observed but also Participatory Chinese Culture: Some Pedagogical Issues and Implications by Jason D. Hendryx
    觀察並且參與中國文化之教學:部分教學問題與啟示  韓森
  • 摘要
    中國文化教學無疑是每一個華語教師教學職責的一個重要方向。突顯出從華語發展且目前有在施行的文化是華語學生的一座附加的橋樑,以提高他們對母語為華語的人的理解,並更好地認識現在被稱為華語的一些語言上的細微差別。然而,在大部分華語課本和教材中,或非華裔學生的華語課堂上,中國文化僅僅從華人觀察到的角度來呈現,對於訪問或居住在臺灣、大陸或其他華語地區的外國人將體驗到的中國文化現況有些方向偏離。引用已經出版的作品(請參見Hodge & Louie 1998,McDonald,2011)加上筆者過去20年來斷斷續續在大陸和臺灣的生活經驗,觀察的中國文化教學可以而且應該通過參與的中國文化教學來發揚的這個論點將被提出。筆者希望藉由觀察到並且參與中國文化的教學這種情況下,華語教師和非華裔的語言學習者,能從中國文化可以呈現並學習的附加渠道中受益。

Teaching Chinese culture is certainly an essential aspect of every Chinese language teachers’ instructional responsibilities. To highlight the culture(s) from which Chinese language developed and currently operates in is an additional bridge for students of the language to enhance their understandings of the peoples who communicate primarily in Chinese. Furthermore, cultural instruction also allows students to better appreciate some of the nuances of the languages now called Chinese. However, the manner in which Chinese culture is presented in the majority of Chinese language textbooks, teaching materials, and oftentimes Chinese language classrooms for non- Chinese learners is done so only from the observed Chinese perspective. Such approaches are misaligned with the Chinese cultural realities foreigners visiting or living in Taiwan, China, or other Chinese speaking areas will experience and participate in. Drawing on published works (See Hodge and Louie 1998; McDonald 2011), then complementing them with the author’s experiences living in China and Taiwan off and on across the last 20 years, the argument will be made that teaching observed Chinese culture can and should be complimented by the teaching of participatory Chinese culture as well. It is hoped that by making such a case for the teaching of observed as well as participatory Chinese culture Chinese teachers and non-Chinese language learners can benefit from the additional avenues Chinese culture can be presented in and learned.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第七期(2013.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 學語言學到了什麼?-從語言的多面向樣貌探討語言教學的新路徑 陳振宇
    What do We Acquire when We Acquire a Language? Implications for Language Learning and Coaching by Jenn-Yeu Chen
  • 摘要
    我們拿握紙杯子和陶瓷杯子的方式不會相同,這是因為兩者的樣貌與構造不同的緣故。如果把語言想像成一種物體,那麼我們認為這是一個什麼樣的物體,也會影響我們如何攫取掌握它。換句話說,我們問如何習得語言之前,要先思考語言是什麼。現有的語言習得理論都有其假定的語言樣貌。本文從八個面向探討語言的樣貌,及其對應的語言習得理論。然後嘗試加以歸納整合出一個比較合乎人類生態的語言習得觀點,本文借用Atkinson(2011)提出的名稱,稱之為社會認知取向。這個觀點對語言教學提出了新的路徑,可供教學者思考與研究新的教學方案。

The way we grasp a paper cup necessarily differ from the way we grasp a mug or a glass. This is because the two types of container have different shapes and structures and these affect how we handle them. If we metaphorically think of a language as an object with a predictable shape and structure, we must handle (use) different languages differently. In terms of language acquisition or learning, this means that we need to determine ahead of time what we think a language is before exploring how to acquire it. Theories of second language acquisition all presume a specific answer of what a language is. In this paper, I discuss eight different facets of a language and their related SLA theories. I also try to synthesize these different views and propose an ecological approach to SLA, which I call the Sociocognitive Approach, borrowing from Atkinson’s (2011) recent proposal. The sociocognitive approach offers a possibility for designing new programs of second language learning.

  1. 漢語成語及典故知識庫在語文學習中的應用  俞士汶、羅鳳珠、朱學鋒、王雷、常寶寶、砂岡和子、姜柄圭
    The Application of Chinese Idiom and Allusion Knowledge Base in Learning Chinese by Shi-Wen Yu, Feng-Ju Lo, Xue-Feng Zhu, Lei Wang, Bao-Bao Chang, Kazuko Sunaoka, Byeong-Kwu Kang
  • 摘要
    無論人的語言能力的提升,還是機器的語言能力的提升都需要語言知識庫的支援。北京大學計算語言學研究所研製的漢語成語知識庫和元智大學羅鳳珠建置的詩詞曲典故知識庫,都是為提升人和機器的語言能力服務的。在知識庫達到一定規模之後,希望能應用知識庫的特性,引用「一詞泛讀」、「觸類旁通」及「延伸學習」的理念,設計學習功能,以應用在語文學習上。本文延續〈分階多語成語典故知識庫教學設計〉一文,更深入的以漢語成語及典故知識庫為例,詳細地介紹內容、建構理念和發展歷程。以及成語知識庫同典故知識庫連接之後,如何使語言學習提升到文學作品學習的層次,並使兩個知識庫相得益彰。

In order to enhance the language ability of both humans and computers, we need the support of language knowledge bases. The Chinese Idiom Knowledge Base(CIKB) developed by the Institute of Computational Linguistics at Peking University and the Allusion Knowledge Base of Chinese Poetry built by Lo Fengju at Yuan Ze University are both constructed for this purpose. With a corpus built to a certain scale and the aid from a language knowledge base, we hope to introduce the concepts of "extensive reading from a single word", "grasping the whole category with a typical example" and "extended learning" and design frameworks applicable to Chinese learning. As a sequel to "A Phase-based Design of Multilingual Idiom-allusion Knowledge Base for Teaching", this paper introduces in detail the content, construction ideas and development process of the two knowledge bases by taking CIKB and the allusion knowledge base as further examples. The connection of CIKB with the allusion knowledge base makes the two knowledge bases complement each other and improve Chinese language learning to the level of literature learning.

  1. 華裔學習者跨文化族群認同及其傳承語習得研究  王建勤
    Chinese Heritage Language Learners’ Transcultural Ethnic Identity and Heritage Language Acquisition by Jian-Qin Wang
  • 摘要
    本研究擬從兩個方面來探討華裔學習者的族群認同與習得問題:一是華裔學習者如何面對雙向族群認同,採取哪些認同策略;二是華裔學習者不同認同傾向和策略對其傳承語習得產生哪些影響。研究結果表明,華裔學習者由於所在國的社會文化環境及其傳承語教育的政策不同而採取了三種不同類型的認同策略,即「適應策略」、「保留策略」和「同化策略」;此外,華裔學習者雙向族群認同策略對其傳承語的習得與保持的影響是潛在的、間接的,高認同不一定帶來傳承語習得的高水準。針對華裔學習者雙向族群認同的兩難選擇問題,本文提出了「跨文化族群認同」的第三選擇,並針對華裔學習者傳承語習得的現狀提出了可供參考的教學建議。

This paper explores Chinese heritage language learners’ ethnic identity and heritage language acquisition from two aspects. One is that how the learners deal with the bidirectional ethnic identity and what strategies they adopt in face of the dilemma. Another is that how the learners’ strategies of the ethnic identity influence their heritage language acquisition. The results show that the learners adopt different sorts of strategies, e.g. adaptive strategy, preserved strategy, and assimilative strategy. In addition, the learners’ strategies have potential and indirect influences on their heritage language acquisition and maintenance. Therefore, the learner’s high level ethnic identity does not necessarily lead to high level proficiency of his heritage language. Hence, to solve the dilemma of the learners’ bidirectional ethnic identity, this paper proposes the third choice for the learners, i.e. "transcultural ethnic identity". Moreover, some teaching suggestions for Chinese heritage language learners’ heritage language acquisition are provided.

  1. 華語學習者電腦寫作考試中「把」字後賓語間接回指的情形  陳怡靜、廖才儀
    The Use of BA-NP as an Indirect Anaphor in TOCFL Written Tests by Yi-Jing Chen and Tsai-Yi Liao
  • 摘要
    「把」字句用來表徵有界事件中某物如何受到影響,以致發生變化後進入另一種狀態。變化發生前「把」所標記的物體已經存在,「把」字後賓語通常為定指,為已知訊息。在華語學習者電腦寫作考試語料庫中發現不少華語學習者在寫作測驗中將首次出現的事物視為已知訊息,用「把」字標記。本文發現這些「把」字後賓語指涉的對象需要透過前文某個指涉對象來解讀,這種現象稱為間接回指。本文將藉認知參照點原則與認知轉喻闡釋學習者使用「把」字句間接回指,銜接上下文時的心智過程。

Ba-construction is used to express how an object in a bounded event is affected, then undergoing a change of state. Before the change of state, the NP marked by ba has already existed in the discourse and its reference is usually definite, known as presupposed information. In TOCFL learner corpus, there are many CSL learners who mark a newly-introduced referent as old information with ba in their writing test. We found that the reference of the ba-NP could be interpreted through a certain referent which appears in the preceding discourse. The coherence in their writing is achieved by the indirect anaphora. This paper is expected to find out how the ba-NP is used as an indirect anaphor in terms of cognitive reference point (Langacker 1993, 2000, 2008) and cognitive metonymy (Lakoff and Johnson 1980).

  1. 從大學校園飲食看華語教材的飲食用語安排  巫宜靜
    A Pedagogical Evaluation of Dining Terms in Chinese Teaching Materials on University Campus by Yi-Ching Wu
  • 摘要
    為改善華語教材並協助學習者,本文探究來台就讀的外籍學習者,在大學校園內飲食時所需的用語,以及可能的語言困難點。以銘傳大學桃園龜山校區內的二十家餐飲店為觀察標的,觀察外籍學習者在校園內用餐時可能所需的飲食用語,以及對外華語教材中對飲食情境和用語的安排,並且以「華語八千詞」詞表為詞彙等級區分的參考,分析飲食用語的詞彙等級。本文發現校園內用餐可能的六類飲食用語中,一般華語教材多含第一類菜單用語、第三類買賣雙方的溝通用語、第四類顧客與服務員之間的問答語、第六類對餐飲的評論語,而較少第二類店家廣告用語,及第四類用餐環境的引導語類,且一般華語教材裡的第一類菜單用語較為簡單。各類用語的詞彙,均含不少流利級詞彙,以及未出現在「華語八千詞」詞表中的詞彙。在所蒐集到432個菜單項目詞彙中,約有347個(80.3%)未列於該詞表中。對於華語能力未達流利級以上的學生,易產生語言理解的困難。兩岸語言差異也呈現在飲食用語中,也可能造成語言難點。菜單中食品名稱無法直接得知成品、食材成分,或者不當的英文翻譯,都可能使外籍學習者無法理解而產生困難。本文建議華語教學應加強目前教材中對飲食用語不足之處,且應針對飲食用語編纂教材或學材,以協助外籍學習者順利達成飲食的任務。

To improve Chinese teaching materials and help learners, this study probes into the dining terms used on university campuses and the potential linguistic difficulties they cause for foreign learners of Chinese. The dining terms were collected from the twenty restaurants located on the Taoyuan campus of Ming Chuan University. The lexical levels of the words defined as dining terms were analyzed based on the List of 8,000 Chinese Words. This study shows that of the six types of ding terms, Types (a) menu terms, (c) communicational expressions between buyers and sellers, (e) dialogues involving customers and restaurant wait staff, and (f) comments from customers about the food and beverages they purchase and consume, are typically included in Chinese teaching materials, but Types (b) advertisement terms and (d) terms related to environmental guidance are not. Type (a) menu terms in general Chinese teaching materials are simpler than those used on the campus. Each of the six types comprises numerous advanced TOCFL Level 5 words and those that were not included in the List of 8,000 Chinese Words. Of the 432 words collected from the menu items, 347 (80.3%) were not included in the word list. This deficiency may cause language comprehension difficulties for students who are not at or above Level 5. The dining terms also demonstrated linguistic differences between Taiwan and Mainland China, which may cause language difficulties. Reading comprehension problems may arise when the name of the food and beverage on a menu shows no direct relation to ingredients. Learners may also be confused by improper English translations of Chinese terms and menu items and encounter comprehension difficulties when examining the menu contents. The flaws in dining terms used in Chinese language teaching materials should be ameliorated, and additional teaching and self-learning materials targeted dining terms should be developed, allowing foreign learners to accomplish food-related tasks.

  1. Corpus-driven Creation of a Reliable Learner’s Vocabulary forClassical Chinese by Tilman Schalmey
    憑藉語料分析制定古代漢語「可靠」詞彙表  夏逖曼
  • 摘要
    古代漢語教材大多沒有現代漢語教材、拉丁文教材以及其他古代語言教材的水平與先進的教學法。此外,從統計方面觀察時,使用現有的古代漢語教材的學生要學習使用的詞彙似乎並非以實踐為導向。這是因為詞彙選擇以課文的選擇為主,並不以生詞的使用為主。同時,課本詞彙數量之大、解釋之繁瑣會令人望而止步。筆者計畫憑藉自己的教學經驗,以現代、高效、可靠、便於掌握的詞彙和語法為框架,為外國漢學學生編寫一本新的古代漢語教材。為此,有必要定義分析古代漢語字符頻率的框架。鑒於上述目的,中文「古代漢語」一詞定義為春秋戰國到漢末之書面語。此論文說明編寫這個時期的代表性的語料的標準,並討論語料內容與篇幅。Michael Loewe先生於1993年出版的參考書目Early Chinese Texts中介紹的六十四個文本可以作為一個適合漢學學生的代表性語料 。此語料總共約四百萬字,用字一萬兩千五百四十六。通過運行 PERL 字符頻率分析腳本可以發現:認識六百個常用字的人大約能夠看懂「古代漢語」的百分之八十。也就是說,學 一千一百零五個字能使學生讀懂先秦兩漢文章的百分之九十。論文結尾處附有語料原文列表以及字符頻率分析字數表。

The quality of teaching materials for Classical Chinese often lags behind that of teaching materials available for modern vernacular Chinese, more widely studied ancient languages like Latin and also behind current developments in didactics. At the same time, the learner’s vocabulary of a textbook can be a deterrent because of its sheer volume and the way it is presented and organized. The author plans to compile a new Classical Chinese textbook for students of Sinology, based on his teaching experiences and an efficient, reliable learner’s vocabulary as well as a grammatical analysis presented in a modern, student-friendly way. To do so, it is necessary first to define the framework for a character frequency analysis of the classical Chinese language. The term Classical Chinese is defined for this purpose as the written language of the time from the Spring and Autumn period until the end of the Han dynasty. The criteria used to compile a representative corpus for this period are summarized, discussing the considerations about content and size of the corpus. The 64 texts presented in Michael Loewe’s Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide (1993) are found to be a representative corpus for students of Sinology. The corpus thus created consists of a total of around four million characters, containing 12,546 tokens. By running a PERL script character frequency analysis of the corpus, it is found that by learning only the 600 most common characters, a "Classical Chinese" text coverage of 80 % can be reached. A number of 1,105 most common characters would make for an adequate working vocabulary, enabling students to read 90 % of an Ancient Chinese text. The tables contain a list of the corpus source texts and the detailed word counts of the frequency analysis itself.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第六期(2013.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 分階多語成語典故知識庫教學設計 羅鳳珠、砂岡和子、姜柄圭、俞士汶、王雷、常寶寶
    A Phase-based Design of Multilingual Idiom-allusion Knowledge Base for Teaching by Feng-Ju Lo, Kazuko Sunaok, Byeong-Kwu Kang, Shi-Wen Yu, Lei Wang, and Bao-Bao Chang
  • 摘要
    成語與典故是非常特殊的漢語語言形式,具有生動簡潔、形象鮮明、寓意深刻的特點。成語與典故的語義豐富,典雅蘊藉,蘊藏著中國幾千年的歷史文化與人文發展脈絡,影響及於鄰國,是亞洲漢字文化圈珍貴的文化遺產。本文旨在探討如何建構一個內容完整豐富的成語典故知識庫,再以分階多語的方式,期以達到:一、透過所建置的成語知識內容,理解成語的含義與用法;二、透過成語與典故對應的機制,以成語學習為立基點,兼及學會與該成語相關的典故;三、透過英、日、韓語的成語翻譯,降低母語非漢語的學習者學習的門檻;四、從成語典故之出處內容,將學習深入到中國歷史文化的深層脈絡;五、從例句學習成語與典故之使用方法,並擴充到文學典籍閱讀及歷史文化探索等教學策略。

Idioms and allusions are unique in Chinese language for their vividness, conciseness and enlightening morals. Profound in meaning, elegant, and they thread through Chinese history culture and humanity development for thousands of years, which has exerted an influence throughout neighboring countries and serves as a precious legacy around the Asian character-based cultural circle. This paper aims to explore the methods of constructing a complete knowledge base for Chinese idioms and allusions on a phase and multilingual basis. Our goal is: 1. to understand the meaning and usage of the idiom with a full knowledge of the idiom obtained from the base; 2. to learn allusions related to a certain idiom on the basis of mapping the idiom and the allusions; 3. to help non-native Chinese learners with English, Korean and Japanese translations; 4. to further study Chinese history and culture with the source information of idioms and allusions; 5. to expand the scope to pedagogic methodology for literary classics reading and the study of history and culture by usage examples of idioms and allusions.

  1. 漢越成語對比分析及其教學建議  王季香、阮黃英
    A Contrastive Analysis of Chinese and Vietnamese Idioms and Teaching Suggestions by Chi-Hsiang Wang, Hoang-Anh Nguyen
  • 摘要
    越南的成語有些是原生的,也有些是從漢語引進的。越語中源於漢語的成語語源雖一致,但隨著語言與社會現實交際需要的語境互動、共構,語形、語義和語用會跟著移轉或重構,或借形賦義、借形衍義、音義化形等,遂產生了語意範圍的變化、褒貶色彩的轉化或詞語的重構等。目前學界關於漢語成語和越南的漢源成語的對比研究不少,如語義對比、結構對比、文化對比等,但對比較結果的解釋及將之運用於越南漢語教學的研究還有待挖掘。成語教學可以激發學生瞭解歷史的熱情,並提高閱讀寫作能力,然因各民族文化背景的殊異,學習者容易產生偏誤。本文針對越南漢源成語中詞頻較高的語料,一方面通過對比分析的角度,探析漢語和越語成語在跨文化交流時的特點及差異,一方面經由調查蒐集了解學生語用偏誤的情形,並希望能藉由研析的結果,可運用在越南華語文他教材編輯上,同時提出相關的華語教學建議。

Some Vietnamese idioms are of Vietnamese origin, but some others came from Chinese. Those originated from Chinese might have changed in form and meaning because of requirements in social communication. Their forms, vivid images, and range of meanings reflect the diverse cultures. Due to the structural differences in the two languages, their forms of idioms may vary. For example, Chinese idioms have been called ”the living fossil” for their profound historical and cultural implications and the unique, fixed forms of phrases. At present, there are certain contrastive studies in the idioms between Vietnamese and Chinese in the academic circles, such as semantic, structural, and culture contrasts. However, our study takes a further aim at exploring how to interpret and apply those findings to Chinese pedagogy. Idiom teaching can stimulate students’ enthusiasm in understanding history and improve their reading/writing abilities. On the other hand, influenced by their own cultural backgrounds, foreign learners are more likely to make errors while learning idioms. Based on the perspective of contrastive analysis, we collected and analyzed those errors frequently made by students. We thereby propose suggestions on the teaching materials editing and pedagogical application.

  1. 中國大陸對外漢語寫作教學研究的回顧與展望  郭利霞
    Composition in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language on Mainland China: A Review and Future Prospects by Li-Xia Guo
  • 摘要
    隨著2007年初中級HSK加人作文測試,對外漢語寫作教學和研究的重要性日益凸顯。相關研究持續升溫,且不斷向縱深發展,寫作教學正在成為對外漢語教學研究的熱點之一。本文對中國大陸對外漢語寫作教學的研究現狀、教材建設及教學法進行了回顧,總結了成績和不足,並提出了今後可開展或深入的若干研究課題。

Writing Test has been a part of HSK at Elementary and Intermediate Levels since 2007. As a result, teaching and studying of TCASL (Teaching Chinese as a Second Language) writing appeared more and more important. TCASL studies have been focusing on problems corelated with writing in the recent years. This paper reviews the TCASL writing teaching and study in following aspects: textbook compiling, current studies and studies in pedagogics. More researches are needed to address these questions.

  1. 漢日漢字的關聯性與日本學習者的漢語詞彙再認  滕小春
    The Association between Characters in the Chinese and Japanese Languages, and Japanese Learners’ Acquisition of Chinese Words by Xiao-Chun Teng
  • 摘要
    與母語相似的第二語言習得的難易問題一直是一個時有爭論的話題。其中有與母語相似的目的語容易習得的觀點,同時也有認為與母語相似的目的語有時反而更加難習得的觀點。兩種不同觀點的產生可能是因為語言之間的相似性表現在很多複雜而不同的方面所引起的。相似性所表現的具體方面不同或許會決定對二語習得所產生影響的正負性,或許因此而造成了學者的爭論。那麼我們在沒有完全確認目的語與母語之間的相似性對某語言習得的具體方面影響如何時,就需要對所要考察的該具體方面的習得情況進行實證後才可做出結論。日語和漢語都有漢字,它們之間具有很多關聯性,所以我們說到漢日兩種語言之間的相似性其實大多數情況下是指它們之間的這種關聯性。那麼該關聯性對日本學習者的漢語習得有沒有正面的影響呢?本文不是考察日語整體習得上的影響,而是對其中的學習者在漢語詞彙的習得上的影響。而本文又將詞彙習得上的影響更加具體到詞彙再認方面的影響。通過對日本大學一年級學生的漢語期末考試的解答進行了具體調查,然後從認知心理的角度做了深入的分析。我們的結論是漢日兩種語言漢字之間的關聯性越強,對學習者的詞彙再認就越有幫助。另外,本文也對日本學習者在漢語詞彙再認時容易犯錯的幾種典型的認知機制進行了考察。

Is it easy to learn a second language which is similar to one’s native language? The controversy surrounding this theme is probably attributable to the specific similarities and differences embodied in the languages. It is probable that the effects depend on which parts of the languages are being discussed. In any case, it is necessary to do an empirical investigation on learners’ attitudes regarding similarities between a foreign language and their own. The similarity between Chinese and Japanese is mainly embodied in the fact that both languages use logographic characters. Although Chinese characters are not completely the same as those in Japanese, the cognitive associations are often close. This study investigated if these associations help Japanese learners (college freshmen in this study) recognize Chinese vocabulary. Through two surveys, this study empirically found that associations between characters in the two languages positively affect the learners in recognizing as well as understanding vocabulary. The study also analyzed cognitive reasons why Japanese learners cannot recognize some Chinese words.

  1. The Efficacy of Teacher Development in a STARTALK Residential Program by Miao-Fen Tseng
    星談中文師資培訓計畫的效能 曾妙芬
  • 摘要
    此篇論文旨在研究美國維吉尼亞大學星談中文教師項目的有效性。維大自2008年開始至今,每年皆獲得美國政府國會經費,開設研究所中文教學法3至5學分的課程,招收全國15位中文教師,進行為期三周的密集強化訓練。培訓方式採用課堂與網上教學兩種模式,理論與課堂實踐並重,內容包括第二語言習得與中文教學法,諸如如何融人五大外語教學目標,設計以學生為中心的課程,選用文化豐富的真實語料,運用電腦科技輔助教學,進行表現式的評量方式等等。此課程採用各種不同的評量方式,針對每位教師的個別差異,進行追蹤輔導,從正確教學觀念的培養到教學行為的改變,皆兼顧團體及個別教師的需要。其評量方式包括項參加項目前後的自我評量檢測表,網上討論,網上意見調查,教學實習表現,每天自我評量與總評量,課堂參與作業的完成,網上專業教學檔案的建立。此篇論文研究方法質與量兩者並重,側重教師參與此課程計畫前後在教學觀念及課堂實踐應用方面的差異性。研究顯示,教師於培訓課程完成時,在教學理念課堂實踐方面都有顯著的成長與進步。

This paper investigates the efficacy of teacher development through a teacher residential program funded by the US federal STARTALK grant since 2008. It documents the professional development of fifteen Chinese language teachers in a three-week intensive training program. The program integrates a balance of theories and practice into the curriculum through a well-structured and supervised practicum. Upon the completion of the three- or five-credit graduate course, teachers are able to keep abreast of new developments in second language acquisition theories and practice in general, particularly in Chinese language acquisition and pedagogy. Through the program practicum, they also create standards-based curricula and materials, deliver effective instruction, and implement authentic performance-based assessment and instructional technology in a learner-centered, highly communicative and interactive environment. The program features both face-to-face instruction and online training. A variety of assessments are employed to keep track of the achievements of curricular and instructional goals and the participants’ progress toward newly gained knowledge and skills. The data collected from the pre-program and post-program self-assessment checklists reveal that participants showed noticeable progress in required skills and knowledge needed for professional enhancement. The study concludes that by the end of the program, the teacher participants had experienced significant conceptual and behavioral change through teaching Chinese as a foreign language.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第五期(2012.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 華語語言文化認知教學:結合概念結構進行租房活動練習  曾金金
    Language, Culture, and Cognitive Approach to TCSL: Introducing Conceptual Structure of Renting a Place to Pre-Task Activities by Chin-Chin Tseng
  • 摘要
    本文主要以事件概念架構鞏固第二語言聽說能力,搭配三種溝通模式,提供學習者針對性的練習、回饋與評估,結合形音識記與意義識記,提供實用信息並教導學習者如何使用特定句型獲取信息,並能進行有效得體的回應。本文以租房概念結構之語言與文化分析,設計模擬租房任務前活動練習,練習的部分著重在聽力及口語溝通能力的訓練,整體設計關注記憶與第二語言學習的關連。概念結構可協助第二語言學習者把短期記憶中的信息組成有意義的單位,有利於將信息轉存為長期記憶。第二語言口說能力與運動記憶相關,口說能力的培養需要相關信息呈現一定的強度和重複,未來希望透過在不同情境強化同一句型,協助學習者將短期記憶有效轉化為長期記憶。

In this paper, the framework of mental structure (Jackendoff 2007) is used for facilitating second language listening and speaking training. With three modes of communication, learners can work on activities which suit their needs and their language proficiency level. Combined with visual stimulus, audio sound play and meaningful learning materials which are organized into a mental conceptual structure. The analysis of the conceptual structure bringing language and culture information to the learners in a full picture. Learners can understand the renting event, containing what information structures, and what sentence patterns and vocabulary are required when expressing a certain concept. The overall design not only concern the listening and speaking activities, but also the information processing (both comprehension and expression) to second language learning.Conceptual structure can help second language learners gain meaningful units of information to store in their short-term memory. After reinforcement and repetition, information can be encoded in long-term memory. Second language speaking ability is related to motor memory, to be able to speak fluently, learners requires a great amount of meaningful practices. Practicing the same sentence pattern in different contexts and employing the memory method for music recital, one can memorize dialogues in a similar way.

  1. 商務華語教材詞彙研析:師培需求暨觀點研究  陳麗宇、李欣欣
    Lexical Analysis of Business Chinese Teaching Material: A Study in Teacher Trainees’ Needs and Perceptions by Li-Yu Chen and Cindy Hsin-Hsin Lee
  • 摘要
    本論文以師培生的觀點角度以及培訓需求為出發點,考察商務華語教材中的商務詞彙,分析目前商務華語教材中詞彙特性;樣本選自大陸、臺灣、香港等三個地區中近十年出版的中級程度商務華語教材,探討被列為所謂中級程度的商務詞彙內容及艱深程度。詞彙研析由師培生的觀點出發,並比對商學院學生以及大陸商務漢語考試的常用詞語表,加以確認師培生觀點的分析結果。研究結果在於明瞭職前華語教師對於商務華語詞彙的理解程度,深入分析目前商務華語教材中的難詞比重及其專業領域分佈狀況,同時探討師培生想要成為商務華語教師所需的培訓資源。最後,根據研究結果研究者提出商務華語師培教育建議,以及商務華語教材中詞彙教學之方向。由於部分難詞源自兩岸專業用語差異,本文附件亦提供了兩岸專業商務用語差異比較表,以作為未來教材編寫者參考之用。

This study takes the viewpoints and needs of the students in a teacher training course to examine the business vocabulary in business Chinese teaching materials. It analyzes the characteristics of the lexicon of some current business Chinese textbooks. The samples were the intermediate-level business Chinese textbooks published in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the past ten years. We discuss the contents and difficulty level of the vocabulary used in the so-called intermediate business Chinese courses. The vocabulary analysis takes the view of the students in a teacher-training course and compares it with the views expressed by business college students. These views are then compared with the vocabulary list of frequently-used vocabulary of the Business Chinese Test used in Mainland China. The research results facilitate our understanding of the teacher trainees’ comprehension of business vocabulary and allow us to analyze in depth the specific weight of difficulty words and the distribution of specialty fields as contained in the current business Chinese textbooks. At the same time, this paper discusses the resources needed to educate business Chinese teacher trainees. Finally, this study raises some proposals for business Chinese teacher training and directions of business Chinese instruction. As the perception of some difficult vocabulary was due to the word-usage differences between the two sides of the Strait, this paper also provides a list of variant specialty words used in Mainland China and Taiwan as a reference for future textbook compilers.

  1. 對外漢語語法教材例句存在的問題及其對策  楊德峰
    Problems of Examples in Textbooks for Teaching Chinese as a Second Language and Countermeasures to Solve Them by De-Feng Yang

摘要
本文通過對1980年以來出版的20部對外漢語非學歷教育語法教材中的例句進行考察,發現例句存在缺乏語境、不規範、不合語法或語用、過時、脫離學習者的生活、詞語過難或過偏等諸多問題,並提出了一些解決這些問題的對策。

This paper analyzes the examples in the twenty grammar textbooks that have been published since the 1980s. Many problems in the examples are listed here. They include lack of context, deviation from language standards, ungrammatical, outdated contents, void of the learner’s daily life, words too hard, and other difficulties. This paper gives some countermeasures to solve the problems.

  1. 表加強否定語氣副詞「並」、「又」的語篇銜接功能  靳瑋
    A Study on the Textual Cohesive Functions of Bing and You under the Context of Emphasizing the Negative Meaning by Wei Chin
  • 摘要
    本文使用修辭結構理論考察漢語平衡語料庫中的「並」、「又」,對否定句中的「並」、「又」進行超句分析,考察後發現否定句中的「並」多出現於轉折修辭結構中,帶出前景信息,信息值高,否定句中的「又」多體現修辭結構中的背景關係,帶出後景信息,信息值低。接著,我們以認知語言學中的理想化認知模型考察「並」、「又」帶出信息的情理值,考察發現「並」帶出的信息情理值低,多是未知信息;「又」帶出的信息、情理值高,多為已知信息。

This paper first uses the Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) to study the negative sentences with you or bing which are taken from the Sinica Corpus. Bing type of negative sentences usually occurs in the rhetorical structure of transition, which brings out forwarded information of much value. You type of negative sentences usually occurs in the rhetorical structure of background, which brings out background information of less value. Next, an analysis of reason level in negative sentences with you and bing from the perspective of Idealized Cognitive Model (ICM) shows that bing takes low reason level and carries new information while you takes high reason level and carries given information.

  1. 法語編寫的華語教材在地化:以法語區中學生初級華語時貌教學為例  黃世宜
    Localization of Chinese Textbooks in French: Teaching Aspect Markers to French-Speaking Secondary-School Students as an Example by Terrier Shih-Yi Huang
  • 摘要
    本文透過瑞士法語區一線教師的在地經驗,體認華語課進入歐洲主流中學體制,須與歐洲語言學科競爭並居於弱勢的事實。為探討原因,筆者以初級華語時貌標記「了」、「過」、「著」為例,比較分析現有當地法語編寫的華語教材;並參酌分析當地歐語教學政策以及歐語教材,歸納歐語教學的優勢在於:1.教學語法術語已統一固定。2.以動詞變化為教學共同主軸,由易到難的學習規律循序進行。因此,建議一線教師面對多重歐語背景之學習者進行初級華語教學時,必須建立穩定而一致的教學語法體系,方有助開展華語教材教法之在地化。

In some areas of Europe, such as French-speaking parts of Switzerland, Chinese language programs are not yet fully established in secondary schools because of competitive disadvantages against European language instructions. To investigate the background of the situation, this paper focuses on the teaching of elementary Chinese aspect markers ‘le’, ‘guò’, and ‘zhe’ for French speakers by a comparative analysis of Chinese teaching materials in French, local European language teaching policy in Switzerland, and European language materials in general. Advantages of European language instructions include: (1) Grammatical terms are mostly regular and formulaic. (2) Conjugation of verbal forms is the guiding principle of instructional design. Thus, it is recommended that local Chinese teachers for multiple European language speakers establish a stable and consistent teaching grammar system in favor of localization of Chinese teaching materials and instructional methods.

  1. 現代漢語「雖然」與「儘管」的語用差異  黃苕冠
    The Pragmatic Difference between “Suiran” and “Jinguan” in Modern Mandarin Chinese by Tiao-Guan Huang
  • 摘要
    在現代漢語中,「雖然」與「儘管」多半被認為是二個完全同義的虛詞。本文藉助對「雖然」和「儘管」語法化的研究結果,論證「雖然」和「儘管」在語用上的細微差異。完整的「雖然」與「儘管」句式包含主要子句與從屬子句,主要子句為說寫人所要聲言之事實或結論,從屬子句即含有「雖然」或「儘管」之子句,為主要子句所表達之命題的背景信息。當說寫人對背景信息、存有預設,而該預設與主要子句的命題對立或相反時,為了令兩個互相對立之事實的推論關係明確化,說寫人用「雖然」將預設加以背景化表達出來。當說寫人認為某一客觀事實為條件,且應作為所要聲言之事實的重要背景信息,則用「儘管」將該客觀事實條件化與背景化。

This paper follows Chao’s (1999) semantic analysis of old, 老 lăo, 舊jiù and employs a cognitive approach to broaden the prior analysis and be even more precise by considering the context of the English usage of old. It further highlights the notion of subjectification in the analysis of old, good old, 老 lăo②, and 舊jiù③ to see the ”good”ness in the domain of TIME and SPACE. Authentic data were drawn from the corpus data of MICASE (Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English), and VDN Data (聯合知識庫) to provide a coherent contrastive cognitive analysis. Moreover, translated correspondents of old, 老 lăo, 舊jiù in three popular language textbooks were also used in the pedagogical evaluation. Preliminary findings suggest that there is a lack of equivalence in the English-Chinese translated correspondents in the language textbooks, which provides a scaffolding understanding process toward old, 老 lăo, 舊jiù, and further sheds light on better implementation of pedagogical sequences.

  1. Revisiting old老舊: A Cognitive Analysis and its Pedagogical Implementation by Enya Jin-Huei Dai
    再談old老舊:認知分析及其教學實踐  戴金惠
  • 摘要
    在現代漢語中,「雖然」與「儘管」多半被認為是二個完全同義的虛詞。本文藉助對「雖然」和「儘管」語法化的研究結果,論證「雖然」和「儘管」在語用上的細微差異。完整的「雖然」與「儘管」句式包含主要子句與從屬子句,主要子句為說寫人所要聲言之事實或結論,從屬子句即含有「雖然」或「儘管」之子句,為主要子句所表達之命題的背景信息。當說寫人對背景信息、存有預設,而該預設與主要子句的命題對立或相反時,為了令兩個互相對立之事實的推論關係明確化,說寫人用「雖然」將預設加以背景化表達出來。當說寫人認為某一客觀事實為條件,且應作為所要聲言之事實的重要背景信息,則用「儘管」將該客觀事實條件化與背景化。

Both ”suiran” and ”jinguan” are commonly considered synonymous functions words in modem Mandarin Chinese. The researcher of this pragmatics study argues that ”suiran” and ”jinguan” are slightly different from each other as a result of grammaticalization. The subordinate clause beginning with ”suiran” or ”jinguan” expresses background information, while the main clause expresses the fact or conclusion the language user intends to assert. When the speaker or writer takes a presumption of the background information in mind and the presumption is contrary to the proposition of the main clause, ”suiran” is used to set the presumption as background information and express the contrast between the presumption and conclusion by inference. If the speaker or writer considers an objective fact as a condition and important background information of an assertion, he/she uses ”jinguan” to indicate that fact.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第四期(2012.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 以提升跨文化溝通能力為目標之寓言學習模式探究 朱我芯
    A Study of Teaching Allegory to Enhance Cross-Cultural Communication Competence by Wo-Hsin Chu
  • 摘要
    中國寓言反映了華人文化的思想特徵,本文因而以之發展為提升跨文化溝通能力的語言學習內容。為發展有效提升跨文化溝通能力的寓言學習模式,本文以理論分析法剖析跨文化溝通能力的各種元素與寓言學習要點,作為推論基礎;並以德懷術研究法,蒐集且分析專家與學習者的異同觀點,確認學習模式之構成要項。針對跨文化導向的寓言學習,本文提出了理解、體驗、綜觀的認知歷程理念,並據此為學習模式的篇章內容、課堂活動、作業任務等三大構面,發展出融合跨文化溝通能力元素的各分項要點。在篇章內容方面,應表現華人重要文化思想,並以經典成語出處、詼諧幽默、貼近學生生活經驗為優先考量,避免長篇或哲理深奧。課堂活動方面,除了利用視覺圖像理解故事之外,主要透過小組討論,使學生融入故事角色與情境、開掘並應用寓意、對比母語文化與華人文化。作業任務方面,可模擬不同對象與場合進行說故事錄音、模擬生活情境應用寓意與成語、與不同國籍同學合作寓言創作演出、續寫或改寫寓言。如此學習模式,以臺灣師範大學國際華語與文化學系大二國際學生為對象,進行了實證教學與成效施測,結果發現,達成理想指標的學生比例達71.88%,顯見本文發展之寓言學習模式,確實有助於提升二語學生的跨文化溝通能力。

Classical Chinese allegories strongly reflect the essential characteristics of Chinese culture; consequently, this study built a Chinese allegory learning module for the purpose of enhancing CSL/CFL students’ cross-cultural communication (CCC) competence. This study utilized the theoretical analysis method as a foundation from which to infer and analyze the various elements of CCC competence and the principles of teaching allegories. As well, the Delphi technique research method was utilized in collecting and analyzing the viewpoints of language teaching experts and language learners, subsequently developing this learning module’s three constructs. With regards to these three constituents, which are allegory selection, classroom activities and assignments, this study employed a cognitive procedure of sequencing Perception, Experience and Synthesis, blended with essential elements of CCC competence, in developing all components for the three constructs. For allegory selection, works which exemplified the ideology of Chinese thought, contained classical idioms were the preferred material. As pertaining to classroom activities, in addition to utilizing visual imagery to understand the stories, students were led to uncover and apply the implicit meanings and contrast their native culture with that of Chinese people. Assignments included in-character storytelling recordings, simulations of daily-life applications of the implied meanings and idioms. This learning module was evaluated empirically through actual teaching of students of varying nationalities from the Department of Chinese Language and Culture Program for International Students at National Taiwan Normal University; when analyzed for efficacy, attained target CCC competency, clearly demonstrating this learning module as quite conducive to enhancing CSL/CFL students’ CCC competence.

  1. 任務條件和寫作形式對漢語二語寫作質量和數量的影響  袁芳遠
    Impacts of Task Conditions and Writing Modes on L2 Chinese Writing by Fang-Yuan Yuan
  • 摘要
    本研究以認知理論關於注意力分配對第二語言輸出影響假說為理論框架,調查三種任務條件和兩種寫作形式對漢語作為第二語言輸出在語言流利度、準確度、複雜度方面的影響。四十二名母語為英語的美國大學生參加了本項研究,分為對照組、提綱組和語言形式組,分別在兩個課時內完成一篇敘述文和一篇論說文的寫作任務。所得語料使用涵蓋語言流利度、準確度、複雜度等七項指標進行切割、統計、分析。統計結果表明,提綱組使用了較流利的語言,語言形式組使用了較複雜的語言;敘述文的準確度高於論說文,論說文的複雜度高於敘述文。也即是說,不同任務條件和寫作形式對漢語二語學習寫作的質量與數量均有影響,儘管在具體方面影響程度不同。

By following the theoretical framework of human’s limited processing capacity, this study examines how task conditions and writing modes influence the output of Chinese learners as a second language (L2) in the areas of fluency, complexity and accuracy. The participants were forty-two L2 Chinese learners at a North American university who were divided into three groups: control group, outline group, and sentence pattern group. The participants completed two writing tasks: narration and argumentation under one of the three task conditions. The output of the performance was measured in seven constructs in the areas of fluency, accuracy and complexity. The statistical results reveal that the outline group performed better in fluency while the sentence pattern group achieved higher scores in complexity. The participants wrote more accurately in the narrative writing but less sophisticatedly than in the argumentation writing. The results are discussed against previous studies using the information processing theory.

  1. 語言教師在課堂活動中對語法及語用的處理:口語課課堂觀察研究  李兆麟
    Language Teachers’ Treatments of Grammar and Pragmatics in Classroom Activities: An Observational Study of CSL Speaking Classes by Siu-Lun Lee
  • 摘要
    在語言教學界,已逐漸形成了一個共識,強調語言學習的最終目標不是得到語言知識,或者只是單純掌握標準的語音、規範的詞彙和語法形式,而是能夠自由運用這種語言交流資訊,表達思想,完成社會生活中的各種交際任務(李曉琪、章欣2010),以期達到“用中學”、“做中學”和“體驗中學”的教學理念(趙金銘2008)。本文以粵語二語教學為一個個案討論語法和語用的關係,也探索語言教師的語言觀如何影響課堂教學活動的設計。筆者在香港的粵語教室以觀察者身分觀察課堂活動。觀察者把教學重點及詳細資料以筆記形式記下,每節課觀察完成後,觀察者把觀察資料謄寫及整理,然後與被觀察者進行面談把課堂設計建構出來。本文從課堂活動討論在語言教學中,語法和語用配合的重要性。

In the language teaching field, there is a common belief that the purpose of language teaching and learning is not only acquiring linguistic knowledge. Teachers and learners are aiming at the ability to use the target language to communicate and express in real life environment (Li & Zhang 2010). Language teachers are looking for methods to achieve the concept of ”learning while using” and ”experience learning” (Zhao 2008). This paper uses Cantonese as a second language as a case study to discuss the relationship between grammatical correctness and pragmatic appropriateness. This paper also discusses how teachers’ beliefs affect their classroom teaching activities. The author acts as a silent observer in Cantonese classrooms in Hong Kong to observe classroom activities after observing the classroom activities, interviews are held to triangulate the result. This paper uses the classroom observation data to discuss the important links between syntactic rules and pragmatic language use.

  1. Topic Prominence and Its Pedagogical Implications by Chao Li
    漢語韻律教學:以第二語言學習者為主的肢體細胞增強方法  李朝
  • 摘要
    本論文的主要觀點是,有些漢語結構表面上不怎麼相關,實際上卻統一於話題突出之下。同時,漢英兩種語言在這些結構是否合乎語法方面表現出的差異,至少可以部分歸因於漢語是話題突出型語言而英語不是這一事實。漢語的話題突出對於中文教學來說,至少在下列三個方面有著重要意義:(一)教師有必要儘早向學生介紹“話題-述題”結構;(二)教材有必要系統地介紹“話題”、“話題-述題”和“話題突出”這些概念;(三)在考察學生漢語水準時,需要把話題突出的特徵考慮進去。

This paper shows that although some Chinese constructions may look disparate from each other at first glance, they are actually united by the fact that Chinese is a topic-prominent language. It argues that the fact that Chinese is a topic-prominent language and English is not is an important factor that contributes to the contrast in grammaticality between the Chinese constructions and their English counterparts. The importance of topic prominence in Chinese has at least three pedagogical implications. That is, in the teaching and learning of Chinese, it is important (i) to explain to students the topic-comment structure at the earliest appropriate point, (ii) to mention and systematically discuss the notions of ”topic,” ”topic-comment,” and ”topic prominence” in the textbook, and (iii) to take into consideration the topic-prominent features when assessing students’ proficiency in Chinese.

  1. Teaching Mandarin Prosody: A Somatically-Enhanced Approach for Second Language Learners by Felicia Zhang
    漢語韻律教學:以第二語言學習者為主的肢體細胞增強方法  張箴
  • 摘要
    本文報告使用主動學習技術教導在澳大利亞大學學習漢語的外國人的實證研究。主動學習技巧引用於稱為肢體細胞增強法研究出來的技巧。這些技巧包括哼聲,跟著語言節奏拍手,利用運動和手勢來加強對節奏的感知。本研究採用量性和質性方法分析其研究結果。結果表明,通過聲學分析發現實驗班的學生說漢語時聲音範圍比他們說英文時候的寬很多。這些學生上了30個小時的課以後,他們的口語考試結果被9個以漢語為母語的人評佑。評估的結果是實驗班學生的漢語比對照班學生的漢語好。此外,從實驗班學生的訪談資料發現,使用主動學習技巧能夠促使他們建立記憶策略,更增強了他們的記憶力。

This paper reports on an empirical study on the use of active learning techniques, the learning of Mandarin Chinese in a regional university in Australia. The active learning techniques are techniques derived from an active language learning approach known as the ‘Somatically-enhanced Approach’ to language learning. These included humming, clapping to rhythms of the language, using movement and gestures to enhance the perception of rhythmic patterns in a language. This empirical study was evaluated using a mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Results showed that through acoustic analysis, students’ developed a wider voice range when speaking Mandarin than when they speak English. With a wider voice range, students taught using this approach were perceived to have better pronunciation after 30 hours of instruction by nine native speakers of Mandarin judges. Furthermore, interview data from these students suggest that active learning techniques used in this approach enabled them to develop better memory strategies for learning as well.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第三期(2011.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 臺灣華語教師之教學環境及滿意度調查:十年來之變化發展分析  信世昌、李希奇、方淑華、李郡庭、林姵君
    A Survey on the Teaching Environment and Satisfaction for L2 Chinese Teachers in Taiwan: A Developmental Analysis of Changes during the First Decade of 21st Century by Shih-Chang Hsin, Hsi-Chi Lee, Shu-Hua Fang, Chun-Ting Lee, and Pei-Jun Lin
  • 摘要
    本研究為一項跨越十年的調查,旨在透過問卷調查瞭解臺灣華語教師之工作狀況及其對華語教學環境的看法及滿意度。研究針對臺灣各大學及民間華語中心教師為對象,分別在2000年、2005年及2010年進行了三次形式相同的問卷調查,其間各相隔五年,以比較其異同及變化趨向,並藉以記錄二十一世紀初期臺灣華語教師的情況。調查結果發現,華語教師之學歷及專業背景都持續成長。無論是自身待遇及工作環境等各方面,華語教師之滿意程度幾乎都以2005年為最高,明顯高於2000年的調查結果。但到了2010年卻呈現不進反退的情形,大多數項目的滿意度均呈下降趨勢。顯示近五年來華語教學環境並沒有進步,這是一個值得注意探究的議題。

This study consists of a survey that was performed over ten years, between 2000 and 2010. It aims to present concrete data regarding Chinese teachers’ views on and satisfaction with Taiwan’s Chinese teaching environment at university language training centers and private language schools. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2010. The purpose of these surveys is to compare changes in the teaching environment over time and provide a record of Taiwan’s Chinese as a second language teachers’ situation at the beginning of the 21st century.The results show that these Chinese teachers were most satisfied with the various aspect of their working environment in 2005, but their satisfaction rate showed a general decrease in 2010. This indicates that the working environment in Taiwan’s Chinese language centers has made little progress during the last 5 years. This problem is worthy of further study and is in need of improvement.

  1. 句型操練和體演文化  廖灝翔
    Drill Practice and Performed Culture Approach by Hao-Hsiang Liao
  • 摘要
    「句型操練」(Drill)和「體演文化」(Performed Culture Approach)是當前美國對外漢語教學課堂常見的兩種教學法。句型操練透過節奏和糾錯,讓學生在課堂裏得到大量的聽說練習。句型操練課「準確」和「流利」並重,前者指的是學生的語音、聲調及語法,而流利則是建立在準確的基礎上,學生不可因求快而犧牲發音,錯置聲調,語法紊亂。體演文化同樣也是「準確」和「流利」並重,但其更強調學生說話應對在中國文化中交際情況的得體性(cultural appropriateness)。換句話說,除了語法、聲調和語音外,學生必須知道在什麼場合該說什麼話、不該說什麼話,才顯得有教養、具文化,而不至擦槍走火,冒犯到中國人。本文裹,筆者將以個人的經驗,探討這兩種教學法的異同,並提供兩個教案,示範備課時的重點,希望藉此拋磚引玉,為兩種教學法建立彼此對話的可能性。

This paper investigates the similarities and differences between the Drill Approach and the Performed Culture Approach, two classroom activities widely used in the United States in the field of Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language. Under the drill approach, the teacher focuses on students’ pronunciation, intonation, tones and use of speech patterns by means of teacher-directed substitution and choral drilling. As a teacher ”conducts” their class, students receive a substantial amount of listening as well as speaking practice, and gradually develop their language fluency. While the Performed Culture Approach also emphasizes students’ accuracy of linguistic forms, it extends its focus to cultural appropriateness. Students of the Performed Culture Approach are expected not only to accurately articulate the target language but also to behave in a culturally appropriate way. In other words, cultural appropriateness is as important as language accuracy. Therefore, the goal of a teacher in a Performed Culture class is to help students develop cultural as well as linguistic situated knowledge, which can help them avoid cultural misunderstandings. It is hoped that by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, a dialogue between the two can be established.

  1. Implementing History and Memory in an Advanced Content-Based Chinese Class: What, How and Why in “Chinese History through Cinema and Cross-talk” by Enya Jin-Huei Dai
    注入歷史與記憶的新元素-高級漢語《看電影說相聲話中國近代史》  戴金惠
  • 摘要
    本文旨在探討對外漢語教學注入歷史與記憶的新元素的重要性,並以「看電影聼相聲話中國近代史」為例加以分析討論。筆者針對研究院國際專業的學生採認知教學方法選材,以真實語料突顯歷史視角的異同。打破以往教學格局,每週請學生參加二小時課堂討論與表演的課程、一小時個人化的語言操練,周五參加電影俱樂部,同時要用中文參與非同步的課堂部落格、反思部落格以英語記錄學習心得並提高語言意識。截選出中國近代史中重要的七大時段突顯兩岸的歷史與發展的對比。每個歷史時間段多佐以電影片段與不同語體的真實語料,同學們可以在Moodle獲取學習教材的內容。此外,為強調口述歷史與記憶的重要性,本課程也邀請講者用錄音的方式談「文化大革命」,隨後將課中觀課的母語人士與學生分組,討論文化大革命對母語人士家人的影響。

This paper documents the significance and relevance of history and memory in a foreign language classroom at the graduate level, taking the course ”Chinese History through Cinema and Cross-talk” as an example. The author employed a cognitive approach to design and select authentic materials targeted at graduate students majoring in international studies. Learners were asked to participate in a weekly two-hour traditional classroom discussion and performance section, an individualized timeslot for language practice, a Friday movie club or cross-talk performance, a class blog for commenting and reporting, and a reflective blog for developing and documenting cultural and learning awareness. Learning materials related to seven major Chinese historical periods were chosen in order to better showcase modern Chinese history and Chinese cultural mindsets. Each historical period was supported with media clips and authentic reading materials that students obtained from a secured learning management system. To emphasize the importance of history and memory, the class invited speakers to use audio recording to discuss the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Both native and non-native speakers of Chinese listened to these recordings. After listening to the recordings participants split into groups composed of one native and two non-native speakers, and discussed their impressions of the recordings.

  1. Implicit/Explicit Instruction Effects and Cross-linguistic Influence in the Second Language Acquisition of Chinese by Chiu-Hung Chen
    內隱/外顯教學和跨語言遷徙對華語為第二語言習得的影響  陳秋宏
  • 摘要
    本文對英語為母語的受試者對於內隱和外顯教學的差異效應進行了調查。主要的研究問題包括:一、對於學習和母語相似的語法結構,內隱教學是否對受試者比較有利?二、對於學習和母語不同的語法結構,外顯教學是否對受試者比較有利?三十六位中文水平為初級的大學生參加了本實驗。他們被隨機地分成兩個實驗組:內隱教學組(沒有語法教學)和外顯教學習組(有語法教學)。本實驗習得的目標結構為否定詞(和受試者的母語有相同的中心語/分支方向)和時間副詞(和受試者的母語有相反的中心語/分支方向)。實驗結果顯示在否定詞習得上,內隱教學組和外顯教學組並沒有顯著性差異,然而在時間副詞的習得方面,內隱教學組和外顯教學組卻有顯著性差異。

This study investigates the effects of implicit and explicit instruction on native English speaker’s acquisition of Chinese as a second language. Specifically, it addresses the following questions: 1) Will target structures similar to those in the learner’s first language (L1) be learned better with implicit instruction? 2) Will target structures different from those in the learner’s L1 be learned better with explicit instruction? Thirty-six college students who were beginner learners of Chinese participated in the experiment. They were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the implicit group (without grammar instruction) and the explicit group (with grammar instruction). The target structures taught to the students included negation markers (with the same head/branching direction as in the participants’ native language (L1)) and time adverbs (with the opposite head/branching direction of the participants’ L1). The results showed no significant differences between the two groups in the acquisition of negation markers. However, the explicit group performed significantly better than the implicit group in the acquisition of time adverbs.

《臺灣華語教學研究》總第二期(2011.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 網路科技與參與學習:三種網路工具在中文教學中的作用  靳洪剛、路聖潔
    Participatory Learning and Internet Technology: The Use of Three Web Tools in TCFL by Hong-Gang Jin and Sheng-Jie Lu
  • 摘要
    本文旨在調查研究參與性網路科技在語言教學及中文教學中的作用。本文選擇了三種常用的網路工具進行比較、分析,以便瞭解各種網路工具在中文教學中所提供的參與度、互動性及其目標語使用機會。這三種網路工具分別為:(1)討論板;(2)博客;(3)Skype。21名在美國學習中文的大學生參與了本項調查。本項調查的結果對電腦網路輔助教學及中文教學領域有如下幾個方面的貢獻:(1)本項研究進一步證實參與性網路工具可以促進學習者積極參與各種互動學習;(2)本項調查還證實,如果教學設計合理,由參與性網路工具引起的參與學習可以提高學習者接觸、使用目標語的機會;(3)本項研究提出7評估網路工具的參與度及互動性的六項標準;(4)與此同時,本調查還建立了一套測量網路工具參與度及互動性的衡量系統。

This study explores Chinese language learning and instruction in a technology-rich, collaborative and participatory learning environment. Specifically, we compared and analyzed three types of participatory web tools for learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in order to understand each tool’s participatory functions, interactive features and impact on target language use. The study involved 21 U.S. undergraduate students who are learners of CFL. The three participatory web tools studied were discussion boards, blogs, and Skype.This study contributes to the field of technology-assisted language education and to the teaching CFL in four ways: (1) by providing evidence that the use of participatory web tools promotes participatory learning and authentic interaction; (2) by showing that if the pedagogical design is sound and the use of technology is appropriate, participatory learning that has been facilitated by participatory web tools increases learners’ target language use; (3) by developing six standards for evaluating the degree of participation and interaction induced by different web tools; and (4) by establishing a system to measure the degree of participation and interactivity induced by web tools used in second language instruction.

  1. 從「依」、「據」與「依據」談華語近義詞教學  吳佩晏、鄭縈
    Near Synonyms in Teaching Chinese as Second Language: A Case study to “yī”, “jù”, and “yījù” by Pei-Yen Wu and Ying Cheng
  • 摘要
    In this paper we investigate the distributional differences in semantic and syntactic patterns of Chinese near-synonyms ”依(yī)”, ”據(jù)”, and ”依據(yījù)” based on the data from ”Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Mandarin Chinese” ( Sinica Corpus ) and the sense distinction of Chinese WordNet. It has been observed that ”依(yī)”, ”據(jù)”, and ”依據(yījù)” are near-synonyms , but they have different syntactic distributions or collocations. Our analysis provides frequency-based teaching ordering, from high frequency (依) to low frequency (依據), from high sense frequency to low sense frequency, which will help Chinese second language learners to distinguish these three near-synonyms with efficiency
  1. 漢語語序的語法意義在對外漢語語法教學中的實際應用  何寶璋
    The Application of Positional Meaning in Chinese Syntax to Pedagogical Grammar of Teaching Chinese as a Second Language by Bao-Zhang He
  • 摘要
    語言學的研究成果可以服務於實際的對外漢語教學,使教學更加事半功倍,有的放矢。然而,二者往往相互脫節,使語言學研究成果被束之高閣,而對外漢語教學並沒有真正受益。本文通過實例介紹如何將「漢語語序的語法意義」這一現代漢語的規律運用到實際對外漢語教學中來。意在縮短漢語語言學研究和對外漢語教學之間的距離,使對外漢語教學受益於漢語語言學本體研究,使從事對外漢語教學的年輕教師和在校的對外漢語教學專業的同學們受益。

Teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language can benefit greatly from research results of Chinese linguistics, to make the teaching more efficiently and purposefully. However, there are gaps between the two. Consequently, the results of linguistic research are left untouched and from which the teaching Chinese as a foreign language is not gaining anything. This short paper is to demonstrate, by using example of positional meaning in Chinese syntax, how research results of Chinese linguistics can be applied to the teaching Chinese as a foreign language so as to shorten the distance between the two fields, to let the teaching Chinese as a second language benefit from linguistic research, and to help both the young teachers who are teaching foreigners learning Chinese and those who are in school readying themselves to get into the field.

  1. 走入主流:美國大學先修(AP)中文考試2007-2010結果分析  陳雅芬
    Going Mainstream: An Analysis of 2007-2010 AP Chinese Exam Results by Yea-Fen
  • 摘要
    隨著中國經濟、政治、軍事勢力的崛起,全球掀起了一股中文熱。在此潮流下,美國大學理事會設置大學先修(AP)中文課程、考試更帶動了高中生學習中文的熱潮,也同時提升了中文在美國主流社會的重要性。自2006年秋季AP課程開始設置、2007年春季年第一次AP考試至今已五年,有關AP中文課程、考試及其影響力的討論仍在持續中。本文將從大學理事會公布的考生人數、考生成分、考試成績來分析四年來AP中文考試的結果,此結果也將與AP考試其他AP外語考試(法文、德文、意大利文、日文、西班牙文)、尤其是與AP中文同時設立的AP日文及與中文同樣有眾多傳承語學習者的西班牙文做比較。最後筆者也探討AP中文考試對美國中文教育正面及反面的影響。

As China has gained prominence in the global arena as an economic, political, and military power, the study of Chinese has become increasingly popular. In response, the College Board of the United States launched the Advanced Placement (AP) Chinese Language and Culture Course and Exam, further driving high school students’ interest in learning Chinese and raising the status of Chinese in mainstream American society. It has been more than four years since the implementation of the first AP Chinese courses in fall 2006 and the AP Chinese Exam in spring 2007, but discussion about the AP Chinese Language and Culture Course and Exam and its influence is still taking place. This paper will analyze data released by the College Board regarding the number, demographics, and scores of the AP Chinese examinees over the last four years, and compare the results from the AP Chinese Exam and AP exams in other world languages (French, German, Italian, Japanese and Spanish) , focusing in particular on the AP Japanese Exam and AP Spanish Exam. Finally the author will explore the positive and negative impacts the AP Chinese Exam has had on Chinese language education in the United States.