《臺灣華語教學研究》總第七期(2013.12)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 學語言學到了什麼?-從語言的多面向樣貌探討語言教學的新路徑 陳振宇
    What do We Acquire when We Acquire a Language? Implications for Language Learning and Coaching by Jenn-Yeu Chen
  • 摘要
    我們拿握紙杯子和陶瓷杯子的方式不會相同,這是因為兩者的樣貌與構造不同的緣故。如果把語言想像成一種物體,那麼我們認為這是一個什麼樣的物體,也會影響我們如何攫取掌握它。換句話說,我們問如何習得語言之前,要先思考語言是什麼。現有的語言習得理論都有其假定的語言樣貌。本文從八個面向探討語言的樣貌,及其對應的語言習得理論。然後嘗試加以歸納整合出一個比較合乎人類生態的語言習得觀點,本文借用Atkinson(2011)提出的名稱,稱之為社會認知取向。這個觀點對語言教學提出了新的路徑,可供教學者思考與研究新的教學方案。

The way we grasp a paper cup necessarily differ from the way we grasp a mug or a glass. This is because the two types of container have different shapes and structures and these affect how we handle them. If we metaphorically think of a language as an object with a predictable shape and structure, we must handle (use) different languages differently. In terms of language acquisition or learning, this means that we need to determine ahead of time what we think a language is before exploring how to acquire it. Theories of second language acquisition all presume a specific answer of what a language is. In this paper, I discuss eight different facets of a language and their related SLA theories. I also try to synthesize these different views and propose an ecological approach to SLA, which I call the Sociocognitive Approach, borrowing from Atkinson’s (2011) recent proposal. The sociocognitive approach offers a possibility for designing new programs of second language learning.

  1. 漢語成語及典故知識庫在語文學習中的應用  俞士汶、羅鳳珠、朱學鋒、王雷、常寶寶、砂岡和子、姜柄圭
    The Application of Chinese Idiom and Allusion Knowledge Base in Learning Chinese by Shi-Wen Yu, Feng-Ju Lo, Xue-Feng Zhu, Lei Wang, Bao-Bao Chang, Kazuko Sunaoka, Byeong-Kwu Kang
  • 摘要
    無論人的語言能力的提升,還是機器的語言能力的提升都需要語言知識庫的支援。北京大學計算語言學研究所研製的漢語成語知識庫和元智大學羅鳳珠建置的詩詞曲典故知識庫,都是為提升人和機器的語言能力服務的。在知識庫達到一定規模之後,希望能應用知識庫的特性,引用「一詞泛讀」、「觸類旁通」及「延伸學習」的理念,設計學習功能,以應用在語文學習上。本文延續〈分階多語成語典故知識庫教學設計〉一文,更深入的以漢語成語及典故知識庫為例,詳細地介紹內容、建構理念和發展歷程。以及成語知識庫同典故知識庫連接之後,如何使語言學習提升到文學作品學習的層次,並使兩個知識庫相得益彰。

In order to enhance the language ability of both humans and computers, we need the support of language knowledge bases. The Chinese Idiom Knowledge Base(CIKB) developed by the Institute of Computational Linguistics at Peking University and the Allusion Knowledge Base of Chinese Poetry built by Lo Fengju at Yuan Ze University are both constructed for this purpose. With a corpus built to a certain scale and the aid from a language knowledge base, we hope to introduce the concepts of "extensive reading from a single word", "grasping the whole category with a typical example" and "extended learning" and design frameworks applicable to Chinese learning. As a sequel to "A Phase-based Design of Multilingual Idiom-allusion Knowledge Base for Teaching", this paper introduces in detail the content, construction ideas and development process of the two knowledge bases by taking CIKB and the allusion knowledge base as further examples. The connection of CIKB with the allusion knowledge base makes the two knowledge bases complement each other and improve Chinese language learning to the level of literature learning.

  1. 華裔學習者跨文化族群認同及其傳承語習得研究  王建勤
    Chinese Heritage Language Learners’ Transcultural Ethnic Identity and Heritage Language Acquisition by Jian-Qin Wang
  • 摘要
    本研究擬從兩個方面來探討華裔學習者的族群認同與習得問題:一是華裔學習者如何面對雙向族群認同,採取哪些認同策略;二是華裔學習者不同認同傾向和策略對其傳承語習得產生哪些影響。研究結果表明,華裔學習者由於所在國的社會文化環境及其傳承語教育的政策不同而採取了三種不同類型的認同策略,即「適應策略」、「保留策略」和「同化策略」;此外,華裔學習者雙向族群認同策略對其傳承語的習得與保持的影響是潛在的、間接的,高認同不一定帶來傳承語習得的高水準。針對華裔學習者雙向族群認同的兩難選擇問題,本文提出了「跨文化族群認同」的第三選擇,並針對華裔學習者傳承語習得的現狀提出了可供參考的教學建議。

This paper explores Chinese heritage language learners’ ethnic identity and heritage language acquisition from two aspects. One is that how the learners deal with the bidirectional ethnic identity and what strategies they adopt in face of the dilemma. Another is that how the learners’ strategies of the ethnic identity influence their heritage language acquisition. The results show that the learners adopt different sorts of strategies, e.g. adaptive strategy, preserved strategy, and assimilative strategy. In addition, the learners’ strategies have potential and indirect influences on their heritage language acquisition and maintenance. Therefore, the learner’s high level ethnic identity does not necessarily lead to high level proficiency of his heritage language. Hence, to solve the dilemma of the learners’ bidirectional ethnic identity, this paper proposes the third choice for the learners, i.e. "transcultural ethnic identity". Moreover, some teaching suggestions for Chinese heritage language learners’ heritage language acquisition are provided.

  1. 華語學習者電腦寫作考試中「把」字後賓語間接回指的情形  陳怡靜、廖才儀
    The Use of BA-NP as an Indirect Anaphor in TOCFL Written Tests by Yi-Jing Chen and Tsai-Yi Liao
  • 摘要
    「把」字句用來表徵有界事件中某物如何受到影響,以致發生變化後進入另一種狀態。變化發生前「把」所標記的物體已經存在,「把」字後賓語通常為定指,為已知訊息。在華語學習者電腦寫作考試語料庫中發現不少華語學習者在寫作測驗中將首次出現的事物視為已知訊息,用「把」字標記。本文發現這些「把」字後賓語指涉的對象需要透過前文某個指涉對象來解讀,這種現象稱為間接回指。本文將藉認知參照點原則與認知轉喻闡釋學習者使用「把」字句間接回指,銜接上下文時的心智過程。

Ba-construction is used to express how an object in a bounded event is affected, then undergoing a change of state. Before the change of state, the NP marked by ba has already existed in the discourse and its reference is usually definite, known as presupposed information. In TOCFL learner corpus, there are many CSL learners who mark a newly-introduced referent as old information with ba in their writing test. We found that the reference of the ba-NP could be interpreted through a certain referent which appears in the preceding discourse. The coherence in their writing is achieved by the indirect anaphora. This paper is expected to find out how the ba-NP is used as an indirect anaphor in terms of cognitive reference point (Langacker 1993, 2000, 2008) and cognitive metonymy (Lakoff and Johnson 1980).

  1. 從大學校園飲食看華語教材的飲食用語安排  巫宜靜
    A Pedagogical Evaluation of Dining Terms in Chinese Teaching Materials on University Campus by Yi-Ching Wu
  • 摘要
    為改善華語教材並協助學習者,本文探究來台就讀的外籍學習者,在大學校園內飲食時所需的用語,以及可能的語言困難點。以銘傳大學桃園龜山校區內的二十家餐飲店為觀察標的,觀察外籍學習者在校園內用餐時可能所需的飲食用語,以及對外華語教材中對飲食情境和用語的安排,並且以「華語八千詞」詞表為詞彙等級區分的參考,分析飲食用語的詞彙等級。本文發現校園內用餐可能的六類飲食用語中,一般華語教材多含第一類菜單用語、第三類買賣雙方的溝通用語、第四類顧客與服務員之間的問答語、第六類對餐飲的評論語,而較少第二類店家廣告用語,及第四類用餐環境的引導語類,且一般華語教材裡的第一類菜單用語較為簡單。各類用語的詞彙,均含不少流利級詞彙,以及未出現在「華語八千詞」詞表中的詞彙。在所蒐集到432個菜單項目詞彙中,約有347個(80.3%)未列於該詞表中。對於華語能力未達流利級以上的學生,易產生語言理解的困難。兩岸語言差異也呈現在飲食用語中,也可能造成語言難點。菜單中食品名稱無法直接得知成品、食材成分,或者不當的英文翻譯,都可能使外籍學習者無法理解而產生困難。本文建議華語教學應加強目前教材中對飲食用語不足之處,且應針對飲食用語編纂教材或學材,以協助外籍學習者順利達成飲食的任務。

To improve Chinese teaching materials and help learners, this study probes into the dining terms used on university campuses and the potential linguistic difficulties they cause for foreign learners of Chinese. The dining terms were collected from the twenty restaurants located on the Taoyuan campus of Ming Chuan University. The lexical levels of the words defined as dining terms were analyzed based on the List of 8,000 Chinese Words. This study shows that of the six types of ding terms, Types (a) menu terms, (c) communicational expressions between buyers and sellers, (e) dialogues involving customers and restaurant wait staff, and (f) comments from customers about the food and beverages they purchase and consume, are typically included in Chinese teaching materials, but Types (b) advertisement terms and (d) terms related to environmental guidance are not. Type (a) menu terms in general Chinese teaching materials are simpler than those used on the campus. Each of the six types comprises numerous advanced TOCFL Level 5 words and those that were not included in the List of 8,000 Chinese Words. Of the 432 words collected from the menu items, 347 (80.3%) were not included in the word list. This deficiency may cause language comprehension difficulties for students who are not at or above Level 5. The dining terms also demonstrated linguistic differences between Taiwan and Mainland China, which may cause language difficulties. Reading comprehension problems may arise when the name of the food and beverage on a menu shows no direct relation to ingredients. Learners may also be confused by improper English translations of Chinese terms and menu items and encounter comprehension difficulties when examining the menu contents. The flaws in dining terms used in Chinese language teaching materials should be ameliorated, and additional teaching and self-learning materials targeted dining terms should be developed, allowing foreign learners to accomplish food-related tasks.

  1. Corpus-driven Creation of a Reliable Learner’s Vocabulary forClassical Chinese by Tilman Schalmey
    憑藉語料分析制定古代漢語「可靠」詞彙表  夏逖曼
  • 摘要
    古代漢語教材大多沒有現代漢語教材、拉丁文教材以及其他古代語言教材的水平與先進的教學法。此外,從統計方面觀察時,使用現有的古代漢語教材的學生要學習使用的詞彙似乎並非以實踐為導向。這是因為詞彙選擇以課文的選擇為主,並不以生詞的使用為主。同時,課本詞彙數量之大、解釋之繁瑣會令人望而止步。筆者計畫憑藉自己的教學經驗,以現代、高效、可靠、便於掌握的詞彙和語法為框架,為外國漢學學生編寫一本新的古代漢語教材。為此,有必要定義分析古代漢語字符頻率的框架。鑒於上述目的,中文「古代漢語」一詞定義為春秋戰國到漢末之書面語。此論文說明編寫這個時期的代表性的語料的標準,並討論語料內容與篇幅。Michael Loewe先生於1993年出版的參考書目Early Chinese Texts中介紹的六十四個文本可以作為一個適合漢學學生的代表性語料 。此語料總共約四百萬字,用字一萬兩千五百四十六。通過運行 PERL 字符頻率分析腳本可以發現:認識六百個常用字的人大約能夠看懂「古代漢語」的百分之八十。也就是說,學 一千一百零五個字能使學生讀懂先秦兩漢文章的百分之九十。論文結尾處附有語料原文列表以及字符頻率分析字數表。

The quality of teaching materials for Classical Chinese often lags behind that of teaching materials available for modern vernacular Chinese, more widely studied ancient languages like Latin and also behind current developments in didactics. At the same time, the learner’s vocabulary of a textbook can be a deterrent because of its sheer volume and the way it is presented and organized. The author plans to compile a new Classical Chinese textbook for students of Sinology, based on his teaching experiences and an efficient, reliable learner’s vocabulary as well as a grammatical analysis presented in a modern, student-friendly way. To do so, it is necessary first to define the framework for a character frequency analysis of the classical Chinese language. The term Classical Chinese is defined for this purpose as the written language of the time from the Spring and Autumn period until the end of the Han dynasty. The criteria used to compile a representative corpus for this period are summarized, discussing the considerations about content and size of the corpus. The 64 texts presented in Michael Loewe’s Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide (1993) are found to be a representative corpus for students of Sinology. The corpus thus created consists of a total of around four million characters, containing 12,546 tokens. By running a PERL script character frequency analysis of the corpus, it is found that by learning only the 600 most common characters, a "Classical Chinese" text coverage of 80 % can be reached. A number of 1,105 most common characters would make for an adequate working vocabulary, enabling students to read 90 % of an Ancient Chinese text. The tables contain a list of the corpus source texts and the detailed word counts of the frequency analysis itself.

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