《臺灣華語教學研究》總第十二期(2016.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 四部對外漢語大綱中語法等級項目分布研究  李培毓、楊志盛
    Analysis of Graded Chinese Grammatical Items Distribution within 4 TCSL Syllabuses by Pei-Yu Li and Zhi-Sheng Yang
  • 摘要
    本文選取四部內含語法項目的對外漢語大綱(即《漢語水平等級標準與語法等級大綱》、《高等學校外國留學生漢語言專業教學大綱》、《高等學校外國留學生漢語教學大綱(長期進修)》和《國際漢語教學通用課程大綱》)進行比較。先是針對大綱的基本情况,即適用對象、主要用途、相互關係做一整理,重新檢視四部大綱整體框架的對應關係;接著從等級的劃分到等級的數量再到等級的項目來比較分析,統計四部大綱在不同等級的數量多寡,歸納四部大綱共有和獨有的語法等級項目,最後呈現並解釋這樣的分布現象。

In this paper we compare grammatical items included in four syllabuses published in China for teaching Chinese as a second language. The four syllabuses are the Chinese Proficiency Scales and Graded Grammar Syllabus, Syllabus for Undergraduate Foreign Students of Chinese Language in Higher Education, Syllabus for Foreign Students in Higher Education (Long Term Chinese Program), and International Curriculum for Chinese Education. First, we list all the basic information, including scopes, applications, and interrelations. Then we evaluate and readjust these items as we compare them across the syllabuses. Second, investigating the diverse perspectives and statistics, we analyze their grading criteria, proficiency scales, as well as regulated items listed in various levels, and form a common list of grammatical items. In the final part we provide a reasonable account of item distribution.

  1. 臺灣學生與馬來西亞僑生於請求與拒絕行為之道歉語分析  陳梅影
    A Comparison of Apologetic Expressions in Requests and Refusals between Taiwanese Students and Malaysian Chinese Students by Mei-Ying Chen
  • 摘要
    本研究比較在臺灣之馬來西亞華裔學生(簡稱馬籍僑生)和臺灣學生於請求和拒絕兩種非道歉行為之道歉語選擇,以及社會地位對兩組學生使用道歉語的影響。研究發現臺灣學生與馬籍僑生道歉語的使用,依不同言語行為及聽話者社會地位,具有共通性。首先以道歉語類型來看,兩組學生無論於請求或拒絕行為,皆偏好「不好意思」,頻率皆最高。兩種言語行為相較,兩組學生於拒絕行為使用「不好意思」的頻率皆高於請求行為。此外,隨著交際對象之社會地位越高,道歉語的使用越頻繁,其中仍以「不好意思」最為活躍。可見「不好意思」具普遍適用性,較「對不起」受歡迎。換言之,本研究發現兩組學生雖來自不同的華語社區,道歉語的選擇明顯相似,皆傾向使用「不好意思」。最後,以道歉語總使用頻率來看,臺灣學生較馬籍僑生更容易使用道歉語,「不好意思」的使用也高於馬籍僑生。

This study investigated the selection of apologetic expressions between Taiwanese students and Malaysian Chinese students. An open-ended discourse completion test (DCT) was employed to collect both groups’ selection of apologetic expressions used in requests and refusals. The results showed that depending on the nature of speech acts and the listener’s social status, Taiwanese students and Malaysian Chinese students shared more similarities than differences in terms of the use of apology expressions. Of the four identified apologetic expressions, Bù hǎo yìsi (Excuse me) was the most used and followed by duì bù qǐ (I’m sorry) by both groups, indicating that Bù hǎo yìsi enjoyed more popularity than its counterpart duì bù qǐ did both in the speech act of the request and speech act of refusal. However, the uses of apologetic expression by both groups were more frequent in refusals than in requests. In addition, the higher the listener’s social status, the higher rate of occurrence of apologetic expressions. It was observed that both groups employed more apology expressions while in the situation of requesting or rejecting higher status, but not in the equal-status or lower-status situations. Finally, regarding the total number of occurrences, Taiwanese students employed more apologetic expressions than Malaysian Chinese students. Although both groups preferred Bù hǎo yìsi, it was observed that Taiwanese students selected more Bù hǎo yìsi than Malaysian Chinese students did.

  1. 體驗式教學法於初級商務華語教學中的應用  李欣欣
    Application of Experiential Learning Model in Fundamental Business Chinese Teaching by Cindy Hsin-Hsin Lee
  • 摘要
    本文係探討在初級商務華語教學中,採取體驗式教學法的教學過程與結果。體驗式教學法是緊密相連課堂內外各項學習活動,讓學生能實際運用、體驗專業知識、語言和技能的一種教學方式。本文透過行動研究法發現,在以聽說為主的初級商務華語課程中導入體驗式教學法可提升學習動機、活化傳統教學法、促進教材創意和跨文化認知,以及提升學生語用能力及學習成就感。但執行實務體驗教學活動,亦需有行政方面的配合,以降低執行時可能會產生的阻力。本案例的經驗也發現,確實執行體驗式教學法的三階段教學步驟,循序漸進地引導學生熟悉商業交易流程中所需的語言項目,可增強學生的語言信心和溝通能力,進而達到所設定的教學目標。最後本文針對商務華語教程提出建議,並歸結出實務體驗式教學進程,期能豐富商務華語教學法內涵。

Experiential learning connects students’ learning activities in class and their experience outside the class, allowing them to apply their professional knowledge, language and skills in real life. This study is an action research in which the instructor introduced experiential learning method and found that it could enhance students’ learning motivation, stimulate traditional teaching method and creativity in using the teaching material. In addition, it can increase students’ intercultural competence, communication ability and the sense of achievement in learning. Nevertheless, proper administration is crucial to avoid obstacles when implementing this teaching method. Following a three-stage procedure, which leads students to familiarize with the business language in stride, can improve students’ linguistic and communication competence so as to achieve the target teaching objectives. Finally, recommendations on fundamental business Chinese teaching method and curriculum are offered.

  1. 德國中文教學概況——海外視角下的師資培育  林欽惠
    Chinese language teaching in Germany: Looking at pre-service Chinese language teacher education from outside Taiwan by Chin-Hui Lin
  • 摘要
    目前國內關於華語文師資培育的研究多集中於教學理念、專業能力、課程模式等方面,從教師自身角度探討海外實習的研究相對較少,且多集中於亞洲地區。本文擬針對臺灣教師的海外實習情況提供另一種視角,對此一群體在德國大學教學時所遭遇的困難進行初步探索與分析。首先,本文將針對目前德國中小學以及大學的中文教學概況與師資組成情況進行介紹,接著就一項針對20位赴德國六所大學中文系/漢學系任教之臺灣實習教師的調查進行探討。根據調查結果,筆者建議未來臺灣的華語師資培育應加強跨文化交際能力、外語教學能力以及對中國的理解三方面的訓練。

Most previous studies on pre-service Chinese language teacher education in Taiwan focus on local training. They mostly discuss preservice teachers’ teaching belief, the development of professional skills, training program curriculum design, etc. In contrast, this study aims to provide a different perspective on pre-service Chinese language teacher education by exploring the actual working situation of pre-service Chinese teachers at German universities. In the first part, a general overview on Chinese language teaching in Germany will be offered. In the second part, we will explore the working situation of pre-service Chinese language teachers on the basis of a survey on 20 Taiwanese pre-service Chinese language teachers who did their internship at six German universities. The findings of this study suggest that three issues that have arguably received insufficient attention in discussions on pre-service teacher training in Taiwan: (1) the importance of intercultural communicative competence, (2) competences in using a foreign classroom language, (3) understanding of Mainland China (society, history, language use, etc.). These issues should receive more attention in Chinese language teacher training programs in Taiwan.

  1. L2 Acquisition of the Mandarin Modal Verb YAO by L1 English Speakers by Jen-I Li and Miao-Ling Hsieh
    英語母語者習得漢語能願動詞「要」之研究  李臻儀、謝妙玲
  • 摘要
    本研究檢視了漢語能願動詞「要」的語意特性,並分析了中央研究院平衡語料庫及一以線上寫作測驗方式收集語料所建構的中介語語料庫,以探討英語為母語之學習者習得「要」的情形。「要」的用法根據它的情態意義可分為三種類型:認知情態、參與者內部情態及參與者外部情態。本研究主要發現有二:(a)表參與者內部情態的「要」最常出現於二語語料中,其次為表參與者外部情態的「要」,使用頻率最低的為認知情態的「要」;此二語習得過程與一語習得過程及語法化的過程相符合。(b)表參與者內部情態的「要」之使用率隨著學習者的能力增加而降低,而表參與者外部情態的「要」之使用率則隨著學習者的能力增加而升高。本研究進一步將「要」的偏誤分為四種類型:遺漏、誤加、取代、錯序,並以分析結果為據提出教學上的啟示,結果顯示在教學實務上,母語對學習者的影響需加以注意,而學習者本身漢語知識的不足也會導致偏誤的發生。希冀本研究的發現及偏誤分析可以對以漢語為第二語言或外語的教學有所貢獻。

This paper examines the meanings of the modal verb yào in Mandarin Chinese as well as the acquisition of yào by L2 adult learners whose L1 was English, using data from the Academia Sinica corpus and a learner corpus. The modal meanings of yào were categorized into three types–epistemic, participant-internal, and participant-external. Major findings were: (a) the participant-internal yào was the most frequently used in the L2 data, followed by the participant-external yào and then the epistemic yào, which is consistent with the process of L1 acquisition and grammaticalization; (b) the rate of use of participant-internal yào decreased with the learners’ proficiency level while that of participant-external yào increased with proficiency level. Four types of errors, omission, addition, mis-selection and misordering, were analyzed. The analysis reveals that both the learners’ L1 and their having inadequate knowledge of Mandarin had important effect on their learning Mandarin as a second or foreign language.

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