Table of Contents
- 四部對外漢語大綱中語法等級項目分布研究 李培毓、楊志盛
Analysis of Graded Chinese Grammatical Items Distribution within 4 TCSL Syllabuses by Pei-Yu Li and Zhi-Sheng Yang
In this paper we compare grammatical items included in four syllabuses published in China for teaching Chinese as a second language. The four syllabuses are the Chinese Proficiency Scales and Graded Grammar Syllabus, Syllabus for Undergraduate Foreign Students of Chinese Language in Higher Education, Syllabus for Foreign Students in Higher Education (Long Term Chinese Program), and International Curriculum for Chinese Education. First, we list all the basic information, including scopes, applications, and interrelations. Then we evaluate and readjust these items as we compare them across the syllabuses. Second, investigating the diverse perspectives and statistics, we analyze their grading criteria, proficiency scales, as well as regulated items listed in various levels, and form a common list of grammatical items. In the final part we provide a reasonable account of item distribution.
- 臺灣學生與馬來西亞僑生於請求與拒絕行為之道歉語分析 陳梅影
A Comparison of Apologetic Expressions in Requests and Refusals between Taiwanese Students and Malaysian Chinese Students by Mei-Ying Chen
This study investigated the selection of apologetic expressions between Taiwanese students and Malaysian Chinese students. An open-ended discourse completion test (DCT) was employed to collect both groups’ selection of apologetic expressions used in requests and refusals. The results showed that depending on the nature of speech acts and the listener’s social status, Taiwanese students and Malaysian Chinese students shared more similarities than differences in terms of the use of apology expressions. Of the four identified apologetic expressions, Bù hǎo yìsi (Excuse me) was the most used and followed by duì bù qǐ (I’m sorry) by both groups, indicating that Bù hǎo yìsi enjoyed more popularity than its counterpart duì bù qǐ did both in the speech act of the request and speech act of refusal. However, the uses of apologetic expression by both groups were more frequent in refusals than in requests. In addition, the higher the listener’s social status, the higher rate of occurrence of apologetic expressions. It was observed that both groups employed more apology expressions while in the situation of requesting or rejecting higher status, but not in the equal-status or lower-status situations. Finally, regarding the total number of occurrences, Taiwanese students employed more apologetic expressions than Malaysian Chinese students. Although both groups preferred Bù hǎo yìsi, it was observed that Taiwanese students selected more Bù hǎo yìsi than Malaysian Chinese students did.
- 體驗式教學法於初級商務華語教學中的應用 李欣欣
Application of Experiential Learning Model in Fundamental Business Chinese Teaching by Cindy Hsin-Hsin Lee
Experiential learning connects students’ learning activities in class and their experience outside the class, allowing them to apply their professional knowledge, language and skills in real life. This study is an action research in which the instructor introduced experiential learning method and found that it could enhance students’ learning motivation, stimulate traditional teaching method and creativity in using the teaching material. In addition, it can increase students’ intercultural competence, communication ability and the sense of achievement in learning. Nevertheless, proper administration is crucial to avoid obstacles when implementing this teaching method. Following a three-stage procedure, which leads students to familiarize with the business language in stride, can improve students’ linguistic and communication competence so as to achieve the target teaching objectives. Finally, recommendations on fundamental business Chinese teaching method and curriculum are offered.
- 德國中文教學概況——海外視角下的師資培育 林欽惠
Chinese language teaching in Germany: Looking at pre-service Chinese language teacher education from outside Taiwan by Chin-Hui Lin
Most previous studies on pre-service Chinese language teacher education in Taiwan focus on local training. They mostly discuss preservice teachers’ teaching belief, the development of professional skills, training program curriculum design, etc. In contrast, this study aims to provide a different perspective on pre-service Chinese language teacher education by exploring the actual working situation of pre-service Chinese teachers at German universities. In the first part, a general overview on Chinese language teaching in Germany will be offered. In the second part, we will explore the working situation of pre-service Chinese language teachers on the basis of a survey on 20 Taiwanese pre-service Chinese language teachers who did their internship at six German universities. The findings of this study suggest that three issues that have arguably received insufficient attention in discussions on pre-service teacher training in Taiwan: (1) the importance of intercultural communicative competence, (2) competences in using a foreign classroom language, (3) understanding of Mainland China (society, history, language use, etc.). These issues should receive more attention in Chinese language teacher training programs in Taiwan.
- L2 Acquisition of the Mandarin Modal Verb YAO by L1 English Speakers by Jen-I Li and Miao-Ling Hsieh
This paper examines the meanings of the modal verb yào in Mandarin Chinese as well as the acquisition of yào by L2 adult learners whose L1 was English, using data from the Academia Sinica corpus and a learner corpus. The modal meanings of yào were categorized into three types–epistemic, participant-internal, and participant-external. Major findings were: (a) the participant-internal yào was the most frequently used in the L2 data, followed by the participant-external yào and then the epistemic yào, which is consistent with the process of L1 acquisition and grammaticalization; (b) the rate of use of participant-internal yào decreased with the learners’ proficiency level while that of participant-external yào increased with proficiency level. Four types of errors, omission, addition, mis-selection and misordering, were analyzed. The analysis reveals that both the learners’ L1 and their having inadequate knowledge of Mandarin had important effect on their learning Mandarin as a second or foreign language.