《臺灣華語教學研究》總第六期(2013.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 分階多語成語典故知識庫教學設計 羅鳳珠、砂岡和子、姜柄圭、俞士汶、王雷、常寶寶
    A Phase-based Design of Multilingual Idiom-allusion Knowledge Base for Teaching by Feng-Ju Lo, Kazuko Sunaok, Byeong-Kwu Kang, Shi-Wen Yu, Lei Wang, and Bao-Bao Chang
  • 摘要
    成語與典故是非常特殊的漢語語言形式,具有生動簡潔、形象鮮明、寓意深刻的特點。成語與典故的語義豐富,典雅蘊藉,蘊藏著中國幾千年的歷史文化與人文發展脈絡,影響及於鄰國,是亞洲漢字文化圈珍貴的文化遺產。本文旨在探討如何建構一個內容完整豐富的成語典故知識庫,再以分階多語的方式,期以達到:一、透過所建置的成語知識內容,理解成語的含義與用法;二、透過成語與典故對應的機制,以成語學習為立基點,兼及學會與該成語相關的典故;三、透過英、日、韓語的成語翻譯,降低母語非漢語的學習者學習的門檻;四、從成語典故之出處內容,將學習深入到中國歷史文化的深層脈絡;五、從例句學習成語與典故之使用方法,並擴充到文學典籍閱讀及歷史文化探索等教學策略。

Idioms and allusions are unique in Chinese language for their vividness, conciseness and enlightening morals. Profound in meaning, elegant, and they thread through Chinese history culture and humanity development for thousands of years, which has exerted an influence throughout neighboring countries and serves as a precious legacy around the Asian character-based cultural circle. This paper aims to explore the methods of constructing a complete knowledge base for Chinese idioms and allusions on a phase and multilingual basis. Our goal is: 1. to understand the meaning and usage of the idiom with a full knowledge of the idiom obtained from the base; 2. to learn allusions related to a certain idiom on the basis of mapping the idiom and the allusions; 3. to help non-native Chinese learners with English, Korean and Japanese translations; 4. to further study Chinese history and culture with the source information of idioms and allusions; 5. to expand the scope to pedagogic methodology for literary classics reading and the study of history and culture by usage examples of idioms and allusions.

  1. 漢越成語對比分析及其教學建議  王季香、阮黃英
    A Contrastive Analysis of Chinese and Vietnamese Idioms and Teaching Suggestions by Chi-Hsiang Wang, Hoang-Anh Nguyen
  • 摘要
    越南的成語有些是原生的,也有些是從漢語引進的。越語中源於漢語的成語語源雖一致,但隨著語言與社會現實交際需要的語境互動、共構,語形、語義和語用會跟著移轉或重構,或借形賦義、借形衍義、音義化形等,遂產生了語意範圍的變化、褒貶色彩的轉化或詞語的重構等。目前學界關於漢語成語和越南的漢源成語的對比研究不少,如語義對比、結構對比、文化對比等,但對比較結果的解釋及將之運用於越南漢語教學的研究還有待挖掘。成語教學可以激發學生瞭解歷史的熱情,並提高閱讀寫作能力,然因各民族文化背景的殊異,學習者容易產生偏誤。本文針對越南漢源成語中詞頻較高的語料,一方面通過對比分析的角度,探析漢語和越語成語在跨文化交流時的特點及差異,一方面經由調查蒐集了解學生語用偏誤的情形,並希望能藉由研析的結果,可運用在越南華語文他教材編輯上,同時提出相關的華語教學建議。

Some Vietnamese idioms are of Vietnamese origin, but some others came from Chinese. Those originated from Chinese might have changed in form and meaning because of requirements in social communication. Their forms, vivid images, and range of meanings reflect the diverse cultures. Due to the structural differences in the two languages, their forms of idioms may vary. For example, Chinese idioms have been called ”the living fossil” for their profound historical and cultural implications and the unique, fixed forms of phrases. At present, there are certain contrastive studies in the idioms between Vietnamese and Chinese in the academic circles, such as semantic, structural, and culture contrasts. However, our study takes a further aim at exploring how to interpret and apply those findings to Chinese pedagogy. Idiom teaching can stimulate students’ enthusiasm in understanding history and improve their reading/writing abilities. On the other hand, influenced by their own cultural backgrounds, foreign learners are more likely to make errors while learning idioms. Based on the perspective of contrastive analysis, we collected and analyzed those errors frequently made by students. We thereby propose suggestions on the teaching materials editing and pedagogical application.

  1. 中國大陸對外漢語寫作教學研究的回顧與展望  郭利霞
    Composition in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language on Mainland China: A Review and Future Prospects by Li-Xia Guo
  • 摘要
    隨著2007年初中級HSK加人作文測試,對外漢語寫作教學和研究的重要性日益凸顯。相關研究持續升溫,且不斷向縱深發展,寫作教學正在成為對外漢語教學研究的熱點之一。本文對中國大陸對外漢語寫作教學的研究現狀、教材建設及教學法進行了回顧,總結了成績和不足,並提出了今後可開展或深入的若干研究課題。

Writing Test has been a part of HSK at Elementary and Intermediate Levels since 2007. As a result, teaching and studying of TCASL (Teaching Chinese as a Second Language) writing appeared more and more important. TCASL studies have been focusing on problems corelated with writing in the recent years. This paper reviews the TCASL writing teaching and study in following aspects: textbook compiling, current studies and studies in pedagogics. More researches are needed to address these questions.

  1. 漢日漢字的關聯性與日本學習者的漢語詞彙再認  滕小春
    The Association between Characters in the Chinese and Japanese Languages, and Japanese Learners’ Acquisition of Chinese Words by Xiao-Chun Teng
  • 摘要
    與母語相似的第二語言習得的難易問題一直是一個時有爭論的話題。其中有與母語相似的目的語容易習得的觀點,同時也有認為與母語相似的目的語有時反而更加難習得的觀點。兩種不同觀點的產生可能是因為語言之間的相似性表現在很多複雜而不同的方面所引起的。相似性所表現的具體方面不同或許會決定對二語習得所產生影響的正負性,或許因此而造成了學者的爭論。那麼我們在沒有完全確認目的語與母語之間的相似性對某語言習得的具體方面影響如何時,就需要對所要考察的該具體方面的習得情況進行實證後才可做出結論。日語和漢語都有漢字,它們之間具有很多關聯性,所以我們說到漢日兩種語言之間的相似性其實大多數情況下是指它們之間的這種關聯性。那麼該關聯性對日本學習者的漢語習得有沒有正面的影響呢?本文不是考察日語整體習得上的影響,而是對其中的學習者在漢語詞彙的習得上的影響。而本文又將詞彙習得上的影響更加具體到詞彙再認方面的影響。通過對日本大學一年級學生的漢語期末考試的解答進行了具體調查,然後從認知心理的角度做了深入的分析。我們的結論是漢日兩種語言漢字之間的關聯性越強,對學習者的詞彙再認就越有幫助。另外,本文也對日本學習者在漢語詞彙再認時容易犯錯的幾種典型的認知機制進行了考察。

Is it easy to learn a second language which is similar to one’s native language? The controversy surrounding this theme is probably attributable to the specific similarities and differences embodied in the languages. It is probable that the effects depend on which parts of the languages are being discussed. In any case, it is necessary to do an empirical investigation on learners’ attitudes regarding similarities between a foreign language and their own. The similarity between Chinese and Japanese is mainly embodied in the fact that both languages use logographic characters. Although Chinese characters are not completely the same as those in Japanese, the cognitive associations are often close. This study investigated if these associations help Japanese learners (college freshmen in this study) recognize Chinese vocabulary. Through two surveys, this study empirically found that associations between characters in the two languages positively affect the learners in recognizing as well as understanding vocabulary. The study also analyzed cognitive reasons why Japanese learners cannot recognize some Chinese words.

  1. The Efficacy of Teacher Development in a STARTALK Residential Program by Miao-Fen Tseng
    星談中文師資培訓計畫的效能 曾妙芬
  • 摘要
    此篇論文旨在研究美國維吉尼亞大學星談中文教師項目的有效性。維大自2008年開始至今,每年皆獲得美國政府國會經費,開設研究所中文教學法3至5學分的課程,招收全國15位中文教師,進行為期三周的密集強化訓練。培訓方式採用課堂與網上教學兩種模式,理論與課堂實踐並重,內容包括第二語言習得與中文教學法,諸如如何融人五大外語教學目標,設計以學生為中心的課程,選用文化豐富的真實語料,運用電腦科技輔助教學,進行表現式的評量方式等等。此課程採用各種不同的評量方式,針對每位教師的個別差異,進行追蹤輔導,從正確教學觀念的培養到教學行為的改變,皆兼顧團體及個別教師的需要。其評量方式包括項參加項目前後的自我評量檢測表,網上討論,網上意見調查,教學實習表現,每天自我評量與總評量,課堂參與作業的完成,網上專業教學檔案的建立。此篇論文研究方法質與量兩者並重,側重教師參與此課程計畫前後在教學觀念及課堂實踐應用方面的差異性。研究顯示,教師於培訓課程完成時,在教學理念課堂實踐方面都有顯著的成長與進步。

This paper investigates the efficacy of teacher development through a teacher residential program funded by the US federal STARTALK grant since 2008. It documents the professional development of fifteen Chinese language teachers in a three-week intensive training program. The program integrates a balance of theories and practice into the curriculum through a well-structured and supervised practicum. Upon the completion of the three- or five-credit graduate course, teachers are able to keep abreast of new developments in second language acquisition theories and practice in general, particularly in Chinese language acquisition and pedagogy. Through the program practicum, they also create standards-based curricula and materials, deliver effective instruction, and implement authentic performance-based assessment and instructional technology in a learner-centered, highly communicative and interactive environment. The program features both face-to-face instruction and online training. A variety of assessments are employed to keep track of the achievements of curricular and instructional goals and the participants’ progress toward newly gained knowledge and skills. The data collected from the pre-program and post-program self-assessment checklists reveal that participants showed noticeable progress in required skills and knowledge needed for professional enhancement. The study concludes that by the end of the program, the teacher participants had experienced significant conceptual and behavioral change through teaching Chinese as a foreign language.

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