Table of Contents
- 臺灣華語教師之教學環境及滿意度調查：十年來之變化發展分析 信世昌、李希奇、方淑華、李郡庭、林姵君
A Survey on the Teaching Environment and Satisfaction for L2 Chinese Teachers in Taiwan: A Developmental Analysis of Changes during the First Decade of 21st Century by Shih-Chang Hsin, Hsi-Chi Lee, Shu-Hua Fang, Chun-Ting Lee, and Pei-Jun Lin
This study consists of a survey that was performed over ten years, between 2000 and 2010. It aims to present concrete data regarding Chinese teachers’ views on and satisfaction with Taiwan’s Chinese teaching environment at university language training centers and private language schools. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2010. The purpose of these surveys is to compare changes in the teaching environment over time and provide a record of Taiwan’s Chinese as a second language teachers’ situation at the beginning of the 21st century.The results show that these Chinese teachers were most satisfied with the various aspect of their working environment in 2005, but their satisfaction rate showed a general decrease in 2010. This indicates that the working environment in Taiwan’s Chinese language centers has made little progress during the last 5 years. This problem is worthy of further study and is in need of improvement.
- 句型操練和體演文化 廖灝翔
Drill Practice and Performed Culture Approach by Hao-Hsiang Liao
「句型操練」（Drill）和「體演文化」（Performed Culture Approach）是當前美國對外漢語教學課堂常見的兩種教學法。句型操練透過節奏和糾錯，讓學生在課堂裏得到大量的聽說練習。句型操練課「準確」和「流利」並重，前者指的是學生的語音、聲調及語法，而流利則是建立在準確的基礎上，學生不可因求快而犧牲發音，錯置聲調，語法紊亂。體演文化同樣也是「準確」和「流利」並重，但其更強調學生說話應對在中國文化中交際情況的得體性（cultural appropriateness）。換句話說，除了語法、聲調和語音外，學生必須知道在什麼場合該說什麼話、不該說什麼話，才顯得有教養、具文化，而不至擦槍走火，冒犯到中國人。本文裹，筆者將以個人的經驗，探討這兩種教學法的異同，並提供兩個教案，示範備課時的重點，希望藉此拋磚引玉，為兩種教學法建立彼此對話的可能性。
This paper investigates the similarities and differences between the Drill Approach and the Performed Culture Approach, two classroom activities widely used in the United States in the field of Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language. Under the drill approach, the teacher focuses on students’ pronunciation, intonation, tones and use of speech patterns by means of teacher-directed substitution and choral drilling. As a teacher ”conducts” their class, students receive a substantial amount of listening as well as speaking practice, and gradually develop their language fluency. While the Performed Culture Approach also emphasizes students’ accuracy of linguistic forms, it extends its focus to cultural appropriateness. Students of the Performed Culture Approach are expected not only to accurately articulate the target language but also to behave in a culturally appropriate way. In other words, cultural appropriateness is as important as language accuracy. Therefore, the goal of a teacher in a Performed Culture class is to help students develop cultural as well as linguistic situated knowledge, which can help them avoid cultural misunderstandings. It is hoped that by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, a dialogue between the two can be established.
- Implementing History and Memory in an Advanced Content-Based Chinese Class: What, How and Why in “Chinese History through Cinema and Cross-talk” by Enya Jin-Huei Dai
This paper documents the significance and relevance of history and memory in a foreign language classroom at the graduate level, taking the course ”Chinese History through Cinema and Cross-talk” as an example. The author employed a cognitive approach to design and select authentic materials targeted at graduate students majoring in international studies. Learners were asked to participate in a weekly two-hour traditional classroom discussion and performance section, an individualized timeslot for language practice, a Friday movie club or cross-talk performance, a class blog for commenting and reporting, and a reflective blog for developing and documenting cultural and learning awareness. Learning materials related to seven major Chinese historical periods were chosen in order to better showcase modern Chinese history and Chinese cultural mindsets. Each historical period was supported with media clips and authentic reading materials that students obtained from a secured learning management system. To emphasize the importance of history and memory, the class invited speakers to use audio recording to discuss the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Both native and non-native speakers of Chinese listened to these recordings. After listening to the recordings participants split into groups composed of one native and two non-native speakers, and discussed their impressions of the recordings.
- Implicit/Explicit Instruction Effects and Cross-linguistic Influence in the Second Language Acquisition of Chinese by Chiu-Hung Chen
This study investigates the effects of implicit and explicit instruction on native English speaker’s acquisition of Chinese as a second language. Specifically, it addresses the following questions: 1) Will target structures similar to those in the learner’s first language (L1) be learned better with implicit instruction? 2) Will target structures different from those in the learner’s L1 be learned better with explicit instruction? Thirty-six college students who were beginner learners of Chinese participated in the experiment. They were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the implicit group (without grammar instruction) and the explicit group (with grammar instruction). The target structures taught to the students included negation markers (with the same head/branching direction as in the participants’ native language (L1)) and time adverbs (with the opposite head/branching direction of the participants’ L1). The results showed no significant differences between the two groups in the acquisition of negation markers. However, the explicit group performed significantly better than the implicit group in the acquisition of time adverbs.