《臺灣華語教學研究》總第四期(2012.06)

目錄
Table of Contents
  1. 以提升跨文化溝通能力為目標之寓言學習模式探究 朱我芯
    A Study of Teaching Allegory to Enhance Cross-Cultural Communication Competence by Wo-Hsin Chu
  • 摘要
    中國寓言反映了華人文化的思想特徵,本文因而以之發展為提升跨文化溝通能力的語言學習內容。為發展有效提升跨文化溝通能力的寓言學習模式,本文以理論分析法剖析跨文化溝通能力的各種元素與寓言學習要點,作為推論基礎;並以德懷術研究法,蒐集且分析專家與學習者的異同觀點,確認學習模式之構成要項。針對跨文化導向的寓言學習,本文提出了理解、體驗、綜觀的認知歷程理念,並據此為學習模式的篇章內容、課堂活動、作業任務等三大構面,發展出融合跨文化溝通能力元素的各分項要點。在篇章內容方面,應表現華人重要文化思想,並以經典成語出處、詼諧幽默、貼近學生生活經驗為優先考量,避免長篇或哲理深奧。課堂活動方面,除了利用視覺圖像理解故事之外,主要透過小組討論,使學生融入故事角色與情境、開掘並應用寓意、對比母語文化與華人文化。作業任務方面,可模擬不同對象與場合進行說故事錄音、模擬生活情境應用寓意與成語、與不同國籍同學合作寓言創作演出、續寫或改寫寓言。如此學習模式,以臺灣師範大學國際華語與文化學系大二國際學生為對象,進行了實證教學與成效施測,結果發現,達成理想指標的學生比例達71.88%,顯見本文發展之寓言學習模式,確實有助於提升二語學生的跨文化溝通能力。

Classical Chinese allegories strongly reflect the essential characteristics of Chinese culture; consequently, this study built a Chinese allegory learning module for the purpose of enhancing CSL/CFL students’ cross-cultural communication (CCC) competence. This study utilized the theoretical analysis method as a foundation from which to infer and analyze the various elements of CCC competence and the principles of teaching allegories. As well, the Delphi technique research method was utilized in collecting and analyzing the viewpoints of language teaching experts and language learners, subsequently developing this learning module’s three constructs. With regards to these three constituents, which are allegory selection, classroom activities and assignments, this study employed a cognitive procedure of sequencing Perception, Experience and Synthesis, blended with essential elements of CCC competence, in developing all components for the three constructs. For allegory selection, works which exemplified the ideology of Chinese thought, contained classical idioms were the preferred material. As pertaining to classroom activities, in addition to utilizing visual imagery to understand the stories, students were led to uncover and apply the implicit meanings and contrast their native culture with that of Chinese people. Assignments included in-character storytelling recordings, simulations of daily-life applications of the implied meanings and idioms. This learning module was evaluated empirically through actual teaching of students of varying nationalities from the Department of Chinese Language and Culture Program for International Students at National Taiwan Normal University; when analyzed for efficacy, attained target CCC competency, clearly demonstrating this learning module as quite conducive to enhancing CSL/CFL students’ CCC competence.

  1. 任務條件和寫作形式對漢語二語寫作質量和數量的影響  袁芳遠
    Impacts of Task Conditions and Writing Modes on L2 Chinese Writing by Fang-Yuan Yuan
  • 摘要
    本研究以認知理論關於注意力分配對第二語言輸出影響假說為理論框架,調查三種任務條件和兩種寫作形式對漢語作為第二語言輸出在語言流利度、準確度、複雜度方面的影響。四十二名母語為英語的美國大學生參加了本項研究,分為對照組、提綱組和語言形式組,分別在兩個課時內完成一篇敘述文和一篇論說文的寫作任務。所得語料使用涵蓋語言流利度、準確度、複雜度等七項指標進行切割、統計、分析。統計結果表明,提綱組使用了較流利的語言,語言形式組使用了較複雜的語言;敘述文的準確度高於論說文,論說文的複雜度高於敘述文。也即是說,不同任務條件和寫作形式對漢語二語學習寫作的質量與數量均有影響,儘管在具體方面影響程度不同。

By following the theoretical framework of human’s limited processing capacity, this study examines how task conditions and writing modes influence the output of Chinese learners as a second language (L2) in the areas of fluency, complexity and accuracy. The participants were forty-two L2 Chinese learners at a North American university who were divided into three groups: control group, outline group, and sentence pattern group. The participants completed two writing tasks: narration and argumentation under one of the three task conditions. The output of the performance was measured in seven constructs in the areas of fluency, accuracy and complexity. The statistical results reveal that the outline group performed better in fluency while the sentence pattern group achieved higher scores in complexity. The participants wrote more accurately in the narrative writing but less sophisticatedly than in the argumentation writing. The results are discussed against previous studies using the information processing theory.

  1. 語言教師在課堂活動中對語法及語用的處理:口語課課堂觀察研究  李兆麟
    Language Teachers’ Treatments of Grammar and Pragmatics in Classroom Activities: An Observational Study of CSL Speaking Classes by Siu-Lun Lee
  • 摘要
    在語言教學界,已逐漸形成了一個共識,強調語言學習的最終目標不是得到語言知識,或者只是單純掌握標準的語音、規範的詞彙和語法形式,而是能夠自由運用這種語言交流資訊,表達思想,完成社會生活中的各種交際任務(李曉琪、章欣2010),以期達到“用中學”、“做中學”和“體驗中學”的教學理念(趙金銘2008)。本文以粵語二語教學為一個個案討論語法和語用的關係,也探索語言教師的語言觀如何影響課堂教學活動的設計。筆者在香港的粵語教室以觀察者身分觀察課堂活動。觀察者把教學重點及詳細資料以筆記形式記下,每節課觀察完成後,觀察者把觀察資料謄寫及整理,然後與被觀察者進行面談把課堂設計建構出來。本文從課堂活動討論在語言教學中,語法和語用配合的重要性。

In the language teaching field, there is a common belief that the purpose of language teaching and learning is not only acquiring linguistic knowledge. Teachers and learners are aiming at the ability to use the target language to communicate and express in real life environment (Li & Zhang 2010). Language teachers are looking for methods to achieve the concept of ”learning while using” and ”experience learning” (Zhao 2008). This paper uses Cantonese as a second language as a case study to discuss the relationship between grammatical correctness and pragmatic appropriateness. This paper also discusses how teachers’ beliefs affect their classroom teaching activities. The author acts as a silent observer in Cantonese classrooms in Hong Kong to observe classroom activities after observing the classroom activities, interviews are held to triangulate the result. This paper uses the classroom observation data to discuss the important links between syntactic rules and pragmatic language use.

  1. Topic Prominence and Its Pedagogical Implications by Chao Li
    漢語韻律教學:以第二語言學習者為主的肢體細胞增強方法  李朝
  • 摘要
    本論文的主要觀點是,有些漢語結構表面上不怎麼相關,實際上卻統一於話題突出之下。同時,漢英兩種語言在這些結構是否合乎語法方面表現出的差異,至少可以部分歸因於漢語是話題突出型語言而英語不是這一事實。漢語的話題突出對於中文教學來說,至少在下列三個方面有著重要意義:(一)教師有必要儘早向學生介紹“話題-述題”結構;(二)教材有必要系統地介紹“話題”、“話題-述題”和“話題突出”這些概念;(三)在考察學生漢語水準時,需要把話題突出的特徵考慮進去。

This paper shows that although some Chinese constructions may look disparate from each other at first glance, they are actually united by the fact that Chinese is a topic-prominent language. It argues that the fact that Chinese is a topic-prominent language and English is not is an important factor that contributes to the contrast in grammaticality between the Chinese constructions and their English counterparts. The importance of topic prominence in Chinese has at least three pedagogical implications. That is, in the teaching and learning of Chinese, it is important (i) to explain to students the topic-comment structure at the earliest appropriate point, (ii) to mention and systematically discuss the notions of ”topic,” ”topic-comment,” and ”topic prominence” in the textbook, and (iii) to take into consideration the topic-prominent features when assessing students’ proficiency in Chinese.

  1. Teaching Mandarin Prosody: A Somatically-Enhanced Approach for Second Language Learners by Felicia Zhang
    漢語韻律教學:以第二語言學習者為主的肢體細胞增強方法  張箴
  • 摘要
    本文報告使用主動學習技術教導在澳大利亞大學學習漢語的外國人的實證研究。主動學習技巧引用於稱為肢體細胞增強法研究出來的技巧。這些技巧包括哼聲,跟著語言節奏拍手,利用運動和手勢來加強對節奏的感知。本研究採用量性和質性方法分析其研究結果。結果表明,通過聲學分析發現實驗班的學生說漢語時聲音範圍比他們說英文時候的寬很多。這些學生上了30個小時的課以後,他們的口語考試結果被9個以漢語為母語的人評佑。評估的結果是實驗班學生的漢語比對照班學生的漢語好。此外,從實驗班學生的訪談資料發現,使用主動學習技巧能夠促使他們建立記憶策略,更增強了他們的記憶力。

This paper reports on an empirical study on the use of active learning techniques, the learning of Mandarin Chinese in a regional university in Australia. The active learning techniques are techniques derived from an active language learning approach known as the ‘Somatically-enhanced Approach’ to language learning. These included humming, clapping to rhythms of the language, using movement and gestures to enhance the perception of rhythmic patterns in a language. This empirical study was evaluated using a mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Results showed that through acoustic analysis, students’ developed a wider voice range when speaking Mandarin than when they speak English. With a wider voice range, students taught using this approach were perceived to have better pronunciation after 30 hours of instruction by nine native speakers of Mandarin judges. Furthermore, interview data from these students suggest that active learning techniques used in this approach enabled them to develop better memory strategies for learning as well.

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